Although raised by his mother as a strict Roman Catholic, Hugo later become extremely anti-clerical and fiercely rejected any connection to the church. On the deaths of his sons Charles and François-Victor, he insisted that they be buried without cross or priest, and in his will made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral.
Due in large part to the church's indifference to the plight of the working class under the monarchy, which crushed their opposition, Hugo evolved from non-practicing Catholic to a Rationalist Deist. When a census-taker asked him in 1872 if he was a Catholic, Hugo replied, "No. A Freethinker." He became very interested in spiritualism while in exile, participating in séances.Hugo's rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869), about religious fanaticism, The Pope (1878), violently anti-clerical, Religions and Religion (1880), denying the usefulness of churches and, published posthumously, The End of Satan and God (1886) and (1891) respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and rationalism as an angel. He predicted that Christianity would eventually disappear, but people would still believe in "God, Soul, and Responsibility.
宗教改革運動【註11-3】導致教會分裂並逐漸減弱它們的獨斷控制。一本書在一個地方被查禁，有可能會在另一個地方出版，而且教會通常必須等到書出版之後才有辦法予以查禁。西元1557年，當時是教宗保羅四世在位期間，第一份禁書清單(Index Librorum Prohibitorum)出爐。這份清單包含所有羅馬天主教禁止閱讀的書籍，它們被禁的理由是不道德或違反教會的教條。接下來的四百年間，查禁書目更新非常多次的版本。最近一次是在1948年，這次的版本總共涵括四千本以上的書籍，包括左拉【註11-4】、紀德【註11-5】和法朗士【註11-6】的所有作品，笛卡兒【註11-7】、大仲馬【註11-8】、小仲馬【註11-9】、伏爾泰【註11-10】和巴爾札克【註11-11】的部分作品，此外還有吉朋的《羅馬帝國衰亡史》(Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)、盧梭的《社會契約論》、康德的《純粹理性批判》(Critique of Pure Reason)、福樓拜的《包法利夫人》(Madame Bovary)、雨果的《悲慘世界》(Les Miserables)和其他世界古典名著。