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[發問] 彌撒亞信仰來源於佛教還是......?

最近看復旦大學錢文忠教授有關玄奘西行的講座,其中有個很有趣的說法,錢教授認為彌勒Maitreya和彌賽亞Messiah讀音相近,意義也差不多。他說學界早有人在考證兩者的聯繫,彌勒是佛教的未來佛,彌撒亞無需多言。兩者都曾經成為反抗的精神支柱。

那么這種全世界範圍的救世主信仰到底是誰影響了誰?

基督徒顯然不會承認是彌勒信仰在前,但是有一點可以肯定:猶太教之後的基督教受到佛教的影響是非常大的。問題是猶太教受到過影響嗎?
有人問我蓬萊路

雲在青山月在天

      --------------------離教者面對耶徒的質疑和責難,引詩作答。
de omnibus dubitandum
原帖由 秀雲 於 2008-5-22 20:40 發表
最近看復旦大學錢文忠教授有關玄奘西行的講座,其中有個很有趣的說法,錢教授認為彌勒Maitreya和彌賽亞Messiah讀音相近,意義也差不多。他說學界早有人在考證兩者的聯繫,彌勒是佛教的未來佛,彌撒亞無需多言。兩者都曾經成為 ...


Guten Morgen
Good Morning , My Fair Lady ,


>>>>>>>>> 彌勒Maitreya和彌賽亞Messiah讀音相近,意義也差不多。

彌勒Maitreya + 彌賽亞Messiah 和 English ,,,,,Master'''' e.t.c.

也 讀音 相g 近,
也 意義 差不多。

也 應來自同一 詞源
[Middle English, from Old English māgister, mægister and Old French maistre, both from Latin magister; see  meg- in Indo-European roots.]



http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/master?r=75
Online Etymology Dictionary - Cite This Source - Share This
master  (n.)
O.E.[[[[[Old-English]]]] mægester "one having control or authority," from L.[[[[[Latin]]]] magister "chief, head, director, teacher" (cf.[[[[[confer=compare]]]] O.Fr.[[[[[Old-French]]]] maistre, Fr.[[[[[French]]]] maître, It.[[[[[Italian]]]] maestro, Ger.[[[[[[German]]]] Meister), infl.[[[[[influenced]]]] in M.E.[[[[[Middle-English]]]] by O.Fr.[[[[[Old-French]]]] maistre, from L.[[[[[Latin]]]] magister, contrastive adj. from magis (adv.) "more," itself a comp. of magnus "great." Meaning "original of a recording" is from 1904. In academic senses (from M.L.[[[[[MIddle-Latin]]]] magister) it is attested from 1380s, originally a degree conveying authority to teach in the universities. The verb is attested from c.1225.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper
[Middle English, from Old English māgister, mægister and Old French maistre, both from Latin magister; see  meg- in Indo-European roots.]


Danke schön ,

My
Fair Lady
Fairy ,


[ 本帖最後由 prussianz 於 2008-5-23 02:03 編輯 ]
exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛
原帖由 秀雲 於 2008-5-22 20:40 發表
最近看復旦大學錢文忠教授有關玄奘西行的講座,其中有個很有趣的說法,錢教授認為彌勒Maitreya和彌賽亞Messiah讀音相近,意義也差不多。他說學界早有人在考證兩者的聯繫,彌勒是佛教的未來佛,彌撒亞無需多言。兩者都曾經成為 ...


彌勒Maitreya + 彌賽亞Messiah

明教[[[[[Manichaeism]]]]+拜火教Zoroastrianism 的 主神 ,,,,,Mazda''''
e.t.c.

也 讀音 相g 近,
也 意義 差不多。

也 應來自同一 詞源

http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%91%A9%E5%B0%BC%E6%95%99
摩尼教
维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转到: 导航, 搜索
摩尼教神父,在辦公桌上寫作。手稿來自 Khocho, Tarim Basin.

摩尼教神父,在辦公桌上寫作。手稿來自 Khocho, Tarim Basin.


摩尼教,又稱作牟尼教或明教,是一個源自古代波斯宗教祆教的宗教,為西元3世紀中葉波斯人摩尼(Mani)所創立。這是一種將基督教與伊朗馬茲達教義混合而成的哲學體系。其教義認為,在世界本源時,存在著兩種互相對立的世界,即光明與黑暗,即初際,光明與黑暗對峙,互不侵犯。中際時,黑暗侵入光明,二者發生大戰,世界因此破滅。後際時,恢復到初際,但黑暗已被永遠囚禁。摩尼教認為,物質世界出現前,黑暗物質與光明精神互鬥,出現後,則是黑暗入侵光明,所以摩尼教反對物質,認為是黑暗。奧古斯丁最出也加入這教派,前後長答九年的「摩尼教徒。」可由此看出他內心的爭扎,也可描繪出他推諉犯罪的責任,情慾的困擾,後來奧古斯丁爭脫了這宗教的綑綁,因而反駁摩尼教。

「摩尼」(Mani)是「摩尼教」的創教者,是生於公元二一六年,二四二年在巴比倫傳教,二七七年便被釘十字架。摩尼的目標是要建立一個世界性的宗教,超越一切的宗教傳統。[1]
目录
[隐藏]

    * 1 摩尼教的神學思想
    * 2 摩尼教傳入中國之經過
    * 3 和其他宗教的聯繫
    * 4 小說中的摩尼教
          o 4.1 歷史
    * 5 参考文献
    * 6 參考

[编辑] 摩尼教的神學思想

光與暗,善與惡,永遠是敵對與競爭。譬如說:上帝是良善的,那麼缺乏良善的就是罪惡;正如黑暗是因為缺乏光明。它講心靈與物質的關係,還有得救方面的論述,有些與諾斯底主義接近。[2]

摩尼教起初在巴比倫傳教,在波斯薩珊王朝信任下在波斯傳教,但在巴赫蘭一世以後,因與祆教矛盾,被迫出亡。有些抵達羅馬帝國,但羅馬人有古老的國教,崇拜太陽,因此在羅馬也是不合法宗教。皇帝戴克裏先在296年下令燒死出家修士與燒燬書籍,在家信徒也被斬首,只有到達河中後摩尼教才可以立足。

唐朝武后延載元年(694年),波斯人拂多誕傳摩尼教入中國1;大曆三年(768年)於長安建有大雲光明寺。摩尼教在中國又稱作明教,是因為信徒稱呼他們的神為“明尊”。

五代後樑貞明六年(920年),毋乙、董乙以“末尼”為旗幟,在陳州(今河南淮陽)起義。北宋的方臘和鐘相起義,元朝“明王出世”的韓山童、劉福通起義,都受摩尼教的影響。

明朝的開國君主朱元璋亦是摩尼教信徒,在韓山童等人兵敗之後,他繼承了明王之名,並成功取得江山。這在著名歷史學家吳晗在他的著作《朱元璋傳》亦有提及,他改國號時採納了“明教”之名,所以稱自己的國家為“大明”。不過,朱元璋在立國之後,即大力打壓摩尼教信徒,使之在中國日漸式微。

但這個史實,在中國因金庸小說《倚天屠龍記》中的描述而再次使大家認識到這個宗教。在金庸的小說裏把朱元璋一夥說成是明教徒,言其江山是明教打下的,故其國號不得不稱一個“明”字。

至今,福建泉州至今仍存有小型摩尼寺。19世紀以來在敦煌莫高窟、新疆吐魯番發現大批摩尼教文書,證明摩尼教在中國西北各地廣泛傳播。

[编辑] 摩尼教傳入中國之經過

唐高宗、武后時期,摩尼教逐漸傳播。但摩尼教在初入華時其實並不順利。在唐玄宗開元期間,吐火羅國王曾獻一慕闈於中國,獲唐室接待。不過,在安史之亂前,該教並未在華設寺院,史書反而載有對該教之禁令。據《通史》所載,玄宗不久以摩尼教「本是邪見,妄稱佛教誑惑『黎元』」為由,下令中國人嚴禁參與。

然大致與入唐的同時,摩尼教也大規模地傳入回紇,其後更被定為國教。安史亂後,因回紇助唐平亂有功,摩尼教徒藉回紇的支持,得以在華傳教。據《佛祖統記》載,唐代宗大曆三年,敕准回紇摩尼教徒在長安建摩尼寺──大雲光明寺。其後,又應回紇之請,於荊州、揚州、越州等州建寺。唐憲宗元和二年,再於河南、太原建摩尼寺二所,並派專員保護,自此以後,摩尼教寺滿佈中國境內。摩尼教教士隨回教使者來華,他們得到唐帝禮遇,在中國迅速傳播。

根據《舊唐書》記載,長興元年,回紇宰相將令摩尼教五百七十三人入朝一同迎接公主,可見其藉回紇與唐關係,勢力已廷伸到政治層面。另外,在元和八年,據《蕭唐書》記,宴歸國的回紇摩尼人,令至中書見宰官,由此可見,摩尼教徒經常由回紇至唐,並得唐室禮待。

除此之外,部份摩尼教徒也從事商業,據《舊唐書,回鶻傳》︰「摩尼至高師,歲往來西市,商賈頗與囊橐為奸」。

唐武宗會昌元年,回紇被中亞新興的黠戛斯擊敗,國勢衰落,唐廷對回紇和摩尼教的態度立即改變。據《會昌一品集》載,武宗會昌三年,回紇國勢衰落,從中國撤兵,要求唐室「安存摩尼」,但唐突改前態,下令禁江淮諸鎮的摩尼寺。會昌三年(843年)會昌滅法時,摩尼教亦難逃其劫,《入唐求法巡禮行記》說︰「會昌三年四月中旬,敕天下殺摩尼師,剃髮令著袈裟,作沙門形而殺之。」事實上,朝廷於會昌元年(841年)已下令沒收摩尼教資產與書像等物,由於一些摩尼教沒反抗,致令長安女摩尼死者達七十二人。

摩尼教先於祆教、景教被禁,而史書的記載亦較詳細,可見該教在唐後期聲勢頗大。當時,摩尼教流行的地區以西北、華北地區為主,在福建、浙江沿海地區,因與波斯等國有海路交往,摩尼教也有一定勢力。經會昌一劫,摩尼教再不能在社會公開傳教,轉而在民間秘密流,並漸與其他宗教結合,歷五代兩宋仍不衰。自此就與下層的鬥爭結合起來,成為農民起事的號召旗幟之一。

在十一世紀五十年代後,高昌回鶻的摩尼教也消亡。在13世紀後不再流行。

[编辑] 和其他宗教的聯繫

唐肅宗寶應元年(西元762年),回鶻可汗於洛陽時,又將此一宗教從洛陽帶人了回鶻地區。在西元9世紀左右,回鶻奉摩尼教為國教。

摩尼教在創立的時候參考了基督教、瑣羅亞斯德教(又名祆教、拜火教,創立者瑣羅亞斯德)和景教等教義。而有的史學家認為稱摩尼教為拜火教,但拜火教只是一個籠統的稱呼,瑣羅亞斯德教和摩尼教是兩個不同的宗教。金庸武俠小說《倚天屠龍記》中的明教便帶有拜火教崇拜火這一特點,相信是受此影響。


穆斯林裡的什葉派及佛教之淨土宗,也是受摩尼教影響之分支。

[编辑] 小說中的摩尼教

[编辑] 歷史

在金庸武俠小說《倚天屠龍記》中,明教是一個與元朝對立的門派。最初由於明教中人反抗政府與行事詭異,摩尼教被稱為魔教。後來因明教教主(即《倚天屠龍記》主角)張無忌力救「六大門派」(少林、武當、峨嵋、華山、崑崙、崆峒)高手,最終令明教成為武林之首。但後來明教信徒、明朝的開國君主朱元璋在上任後遏力打壓明教,但明教並非金庸另一武俠小說《笑傲江湖》中的「魔教」日月神教。


[编辑] 参考文献

   1. ^ 華爾克,謝受靈、趙毅之譯,《基督教會史》,(香港:基督教文藝出版社,2005,174)。
   2. ^ 華爾克,謝受靈、趙毅之譯,《基督教會史》,(香港:基督教文藝出版社,2005,174)。

[编辑] 參考

    * 馬小鶴:摩尼教(末尼教、牟尼教、明教)
    * 金庸:《倚天屠龍記》
    * 王煜,《世紀‧讀者來函:祅乃祆之誤》,明報2004年7月21日D4版。
    * 註解1:向達:《唐代長安與西域文明•西亞新宗教之傳入長安》河北教育出版社 ISBN 754344237X

  摩尼教是一个與文学相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。
来自“http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%91%A9%E5%B0%BC%E6%95%99
分类: 各種宗教宗派及運動 | 金庸筆下門派
exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛
原帖由 秀雲 於 2008-5-22 20:40 發表
最近看復旦大學錢文忠教授有關玄奘西行的講座,其中有個很有趣的說法,錢教授認為彌勒Maitreya和彌賽亞Messiah讀音相近,意義也差不多。他說學界早有人在考證兩者的聯繫,彌勒是佛教的未來佛,彌撒亞無需多言。兩者都曾經成為 ...


My Fair Lady : :

彌勒Maitreya + 彌賽亞Messiah

明教[[[[[Manichaeism]]]]+拜火教Zoroastrianism 的 主神 ,,,,,Mazda'''' ,
e.t.c.

也 讀音 相g 近,
也 意義 差不多。

也 應來自同一 詞源


something more for your referrence about
````````` 明教[[[[[Manichaeism]]]]+拜火教Zoroastrianism 的 主神 ,,,,,Mazda'''' """""""""
i.e.
not the car-maker ,,,,,Mazda'''' .,;==^)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura_Mazda
Ahura Mazda
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Zoroastrianism

Ahura Mazda (Ahura Mazdā) is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God.

The Zoroastrian faith is described by its adherents as Mazdayasna, the worship of Mazda. In the Avesta, "Ahura Mazda is the highest object of worship"[1], the first and most frequently invoked divinity in the Yasna liturgy. In Zoroastrian cosmogony and tradition, all the lesser divinities are also creations of Mazda. (eg Bundahishn III)

Ahura Mazda is 'Auramazdā'[2] in Old Persian, 'Aramazd' in Parthian[3] and Armenian (cf. also Aramazd). Middle- and New Persian language usage varies, but 'Hourmazd', 'Hormizd', 'Hormuzd', 'Ohrmazd' and 'Ormazd/Ōrmazd' (Persian: اورمزد/ارمزد) are common transliterations.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Nomenclature
    * 2 Perceived origin
    * 3 In Zoroaster's revelation
    * 4 In Zurvanite Zoroastrianism
    * 5 In present-day Zoroastrianism
    * 6 In West-Iranian iconography
    * 7 In other religions
    * 8 References
    * 9 Bibliography
    * 10 Further reading

[edit] Nomenclature

'Mazda', or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is generally taken to be the proper name of the deity, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European *mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning "placing (dʰeh1) one's mind (mn̩-s)", hence "wise".

'Ahura' was originally an adjective meaning ahuric, characterizing a specific Indo-Iranian entity named *asura.[4][5][6] Although traces of this figure are still evident in the oldest texts of both India and Iran,[7] in both cultures the word eventually appears as the epithet of other divinities.

In the Gathas (Gāθās), the hymns thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself, the two halves of the name are not necessarily used together, or are used interchangeably, or are used in reverse order. However, in the younger texts of the Avesta, both Ahura and Mazda are integral parts of the name Ahura Mazda, and which are conjoined in other old Iranian languages.

[edit] Perceived origin

Although Ahura Mazda is accepted to be the conceptual equivalent of a proto-Indo-Iranian divinity, the details are a matter of speculation and debate. Scholarly consensus identifies a connection to the prototypical *vouruna and *mitra, but whether Ahura Mazda is one of these two, or both together, or even a superior of the two has not been conclusively established.

One view[8] is that the proto-Indo-Iranian divinity is the nameless "Father Asura", that is, Varuna of the Rigveda. In this view, Zoroastrian mazda is the equivalent of the Vedic medhira, described in Rigveda 8.6.10 as the "(revealed) insight into the cosmic order" that Varuna grants his devotees. It has also been suggested[9] that Ahura Mazda could be an Iranian development of the dvandvah expression *mitra-*vouruna, with *mitra being the otherwise nameless 'Lord' (Ahura) and *vouruna being mazda/medhira as noted above. In this constellation, Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the favorable characteristics of *mitra negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna.

In another view, Ahura Mazda is seen as the Ahura par excellence, superior to both *vouruna and *mitra, and the nameless "Father Asura" of the RigVeda is a distinct divinity (see etymology above) to whom Ahura Mazda may or may not be related. In a development of this view,[10] the dvandvah expression *mitra-*vouruna is none other than the archaic 'Mithra-Baga' of the Avesta. But while in the Vedas Bhaga is a minor divinity in its own right, in proto-Indo-Iranian times this was an epithet of *vouruna's concept and in Greater Iran continued to be a cult title for *vouruna and eventually replaced it.[11] It has also been noted that on Persepolis fortification tablet #337, Ahura Mazda is distinct from both Mithra and the Baga.[12]

[edit] In Zoroaster's revelation

Kushan worshipper with Zeus/Serapis/Ohrmazd, Bactria, 3rd century CE.
Kushan worshipper with Zeus/Serapis/Ohrmazd, Bactria, 3rd century CE.

Although the principle of a creator divinity was not new to the two Indo-Iranian cultures, Zoroaster gives Ahura Mazda an entirely new dimension by characterizing the Creator as the one uncreated God (Yasna 30.3, 45.2). "No satisfactory evidence has yet been adduced to show that, before Zoroaster, the concept of a supreme god existed among the Iranians."[13]

Central to Zoroaster's perception of Ahura Mazda is the concept of asha, literally "truth", and in the extended sense, the equitable law of the universe, which governed the life of Zoroaster's people, the nomadic herdsmen of the Central Asian steppes.[14] For these, asha was the course of everything observable, the motion of the planets and astral bodies, the progression of the seasons, the pattern of daily nomadic herdsman life, governed by regular metronomic events such as sunrise and sunset. All physical creation (geti) was thus a product of - and ran according to - a master plan, inherent to Ahura Mazda, and violations of the order (druj) were violations against creation, and thus violations against Ahura Mazda.

This concept of asha versus the druj should not be confused with the good-versus-evil battle evident in western religions, for although both forms of opposition express moral conflict, the asha versus druj concept is more subtle and nuanced, representing, for instance, chaos (that opposes order); or 'uncreation', evident as natural decay (Avestan: nasu) that opposes creation; or more literally 'the Lie' of Yasna 31.1 (that opposes truth, righteousness).

In Zoroaster's perception of Ahura Mazda's role as the one uncreated Creator of all (Yasna 44.7), the Creator is then not also the creator of 'druj', for as anti-creation, the druj are not created (or not creatable, and thus - like Ahura Mazda - uncreated). "All" is therefore the "supreme benevolent providence" (Yasna 43.11), and Ahura Mazda as the benevolent Creator of all is consequently the Creator of only the good (Yasna 31.4). In Zoroaster's revelation, Ahura Mazda will ultimately triumph (Yasna 48.1), but cannot (or will not) control the druj in the here and now. As such, Zoroaster did not perceive Ahura Mazda to be omnipotent. Zoroaster did not hypostasize either good or evil (see asha for details).

Throughout the Gathas Zoroaster emphasizes deeds and actions, for it is only through "good thoughts, good words, good deeds" that order can be maintained, and in Zoroaster's revelation indeed the purpose of humankind is to assist in maintaining the order. In Yasna 45.9, Ahura Mazda "has left to men's wills" to choose between doing good (that is, good thoughts, good words and good deeds) and doing evil (bad thoughts, bad words and bad deeds). This concept of a free will is perhaps Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious philosophy.

[edit] In Zurvanite Zoroastrianism

In Zurvanism, a now-extinct doctrine within greater Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda was not the transcendental God, but one of two equal-but-opposite divinities under the supremacy of Zurvan, 'Time'. This belief, which from a Mazdaen point of view is an apostasy, rests on an interpretation of Yasna 30.3, that makes Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu twin brothers that had co-existed for all Time.

Although Zurvanism appears to have thrived during the Sassanid era (226–651), no traces of it remain beyond the 10th century. Accounts of typically Zurvanite beliefs were the first traces of Zoroastrianism to reach the west, which misled European scholars to conclude that Zoroastrianism was a monist faith.

[edit] In present-day Zoroastrianism

In 1884, Martin Haug proposed a new interpretation of Yasna 30.3 that provided an escape from (what was considered to be) the dualism implicit in the Gathas. According to Haug's interpretation, the "Twin spirits" of 30.3 were Angra Mainyu and Spenta Mainyu, the former being the 'Destructive Emanation' of Ahura Mazda and the latter being His 'Creative Emanation' (see Amesha Spenta for details on the relationship).

In effect, the Angra Mainyu versus Spenta Mainyu theory was simply a rediscovery of the precepts of Zurvanism, with the difference that Angra Mainyu was now not Ahura Mazda's equal, but an emanation of Him. Haug also developed the idea further, interpreting the concept of a free will of Yasna 45.9 as an accommodation to explain where Angra Mainyu came from since Ahura Mazda created only good. The free will, so Haug, made it possible for Angra Mainyu to choose to be evil.

There is no trace of such philosophy in Zoroastrian tradition,[12] but Haug's interpretation was gratefully accepted by the Parsis of Bombay since it provided a defence against Christian missionaries who were attacking the Zoroastrians for the dualism inherent to the idea of (substantiated) Evil that was as uncreated as God was. Notwithstanding the oversight that Zoroastrianism, as an eastern religion, did not hypostatize evil as western religions did, Haug's ideas were subsequently disseminated as a Parsi interpretation, thus corroborating the theories. Haug's ideas were so popular that they are now almost universally accepted as doctrine.

[edit] In West-Iranian iconography

Ahura Mazda (right, with high crown) invests Ardashir I (left) with the ring of kingship. (Naqsh-e Rustam, 3rd c. CE)
Ahura Mazda (right, with high crown) invests Ardashir I (left) with the ring of kingship. (Naqsh-e Rustam, 3rd c. CE)

From the reign of Cyrus the Great down to Darius III, it was apparently customary for an empty chariot drawn by white horses to accompany the Persian army. According to Herodotus, who first described the practice, this chariot was sacred to "Zeus" who was presumably believed to position himself at the head of the army. (Ahura Mazda was frequently named Zeus by the Greeks; Aristotle refers to Zeus-Oromasdes being opposed by Hades-Aremainius.)

The earliest reference to the use of an image to accompany devotion to Ahura Mazda is from "the 39th year of the reign of Artaxerxes Mnemon" (c. 365 BCE) in which a Satrap of Lydia raised a statue (according to the Greek commentator) to "Zeus" the Lawgiver.

The worship of Ahura Mazda with accompanying images is known to have occurred during the Arsacid era (250 BCE–226 CE), but by the beginning of the Sassanid period (226–651), the custom appears to have fallen out of favor. A few images from Sassanid times that depict "Ohrmazd", reveal a male figure wearing a high crown.

[edit] In other religions

In Manichaeism, the name Ohrmazd Bay ("god Ahura Mazda") was used for the primal figure Nāšā Qaḏmāyā, the "original man" through whose fall the original Light became tainted with dark matter.

In Sogdian Buddhism, Xwrmztʔ (Sogdian was written without a consistent representation of vowels) was the name used for the Buddhist ruler-deity Śakra. Via contacts with Turkic-speaking peoples like the Uyghurs, this Sogdian name came to the Mongols, who still name this deity Qormusta Tengri; Qormusta (or Qormusda) is now a popular enough deity to appear in many contexts that are not explicitly Buddhist.

[edit] References

   1. ^ Dhalla 1938, p. 154.
   2. ^ Kent 1945, p. 229ff.
   3. ^ Boyce 1983, p. 684.
   4. ^ Thieme 1960, p. 308.
   5. ^ Gershevitch 1964, p. 23.
   6. ^ Kuiper 1983, p. 682.
   7. ^ Thieme 1960, pp. 308-309.
   8. ^ cf. Kuiper 1976, pp. 33ff.
   9. ^ Kuiper 1983, p. 683.
  10. ^ Boyce 2001, pp. 239-257.
  11. ^ Boyce 2001, pp. 243-244.
  12. ^ a b Boyce 1983, p. 685.
  13. ^ Boyce 2001, p. 243, n.18.
  14. ^ Boyce 1975, pp. 1ff

[edit] Bibliography

    * Boyce, Mary (1975), History of Zoroastrianism, Vol. I, The early period, Leiden: Brill
    * Boyce, Mary (1982), History of Zoroastrianism, Vol. II, Under the Achamenians, Leiden: Brill
    * Boyce, Mary (1983), "Ahura Mazdā", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 684–687
    * Boyce, Mary (2001), "Mithra the King and Varuna the Master", Festschrift für Helmut Humbach zum 80., Trier: WWT, pp. 239–257
    * Dhalla, Maneckji Nusservanji (1938), History of Zoroastrianism, New York: OUP
    * Humbach, Helmut (1991), The Gathas of Zarathushtra and the other Old Avestan texts, Heidelberg: Winter
    * Kent, Roland G. (1945), "Old Persian Texts", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 4 (4): 228-233
    * Kuiper, Bernardus Franciscus Jacobus (1983), "Ahura", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 682–683
    * Kuiper, Bernardus Franciscus Jacobus (1976), "Ahura Mazdā 'Lord Wisdom'?", Indo-Iranian Journal 18 (1-2): 25-42
    * Schlerath, Bernfried (1983), "Ahurānī", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 683–684

[edit] Further reading

    * The 101 names of Ahura Mazda

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura_Mazda"
Categories: Zoroastrianism | Names of God

[ 本帖最後由 prussianz 於 2008-5-23 02:02 編輯 ]
exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛
原帖由 秀雲 於 2008-5-22 20:40 發表
最近看復旦大學錢文忠教授有關玄奘西行的講座,其中有個很有趣的說法,錢教授認為彌勒Maitreya和彌賽亞Messiah讀音相近,意義也差不多。他說學界早有人在考證兩者的聯繫,彌勒是佛教的未來佛,彌撒亞無需多言。兩者都曾經成為 ...


some thing which may interest you : :::::::::: Gnostic[[[[[諾斯底主義]]]] + 明教

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manichaeism
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin e Māni; Chinese: 摩尼教) was one of the major Gnostic religions,

`````````

St. Augustine was originally a Manichaean.


"""""""""
When Christians first encountered Manichaeism, they deemed it a heresy, since it had originated in a heavily Gnostic area of the Persian empire. Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD) converted to Christianity from Manichaeism, in the year 387. This was shortly after the Roman Emperor Theodosius I had issued a decree of death for Manichaeans (in 382 AD)
(according to the Gnostic Bible by Willis Barnstone, here is one of many authenticating references proving the centrality of Buddhism in Mani's formulation of Gnosticism):



[ 本帖最後由 prussianz 於 2008-5-23 02:22 編輯 ]
exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛
原帖由 秀雲 於 2008-5-22 20:40 發表
最近看復旦大學錢文忠教授有關玄奘西行的講座,其中有個很有趣的說法,錢教授認為彌勒Maitreya和彌賽亞Messiah讀音相近,意義也差不多。他說學界早有人在考證兩者的聯繫,彌勒是佛教的未來佛,彌撒亞無需多言。兩者都曾經成為 ...


>>>>>>>>> 彌賽亞Messiah

,,,,,Messer'''' ,

,,,,, das Messer '''' = German = ,,,,, the knife '''' ,

,,,,, das ''''  = ,,,,,the''''

,,,,,Messer'''' = ,,,,,knife'''' ,

exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛
谢谢!維基的介紹還不是特別明確。早期基督教受到佛教影響是無容置疑的,(如prussianz前輩說的摩尼教)就如佛教的造像藝術受到過希臘文化的影響。這似乎屬於雙方面的滲透~~~但全世界範圍盛行的救世主信仰是否由彌勒信仰而起?錢文忠的說法是彌勒和彌撒亞是全世界救世主信仰的一個分支,這個說法很圓滑。但總有初始的起頭吧?
有人問我蓬萊路

雲在青山月在天

      --------------------離教者面對耶徒的質疑和責難,引詩作答。
逆源經記載:i'am  彌賽亞
以消滅基督文化為己任
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