異教徒長期以來一直崇拜森林中的樹或帶回家或裝飾之，顯然這被教會所採用以崇拜，但舊約申命記 第十六章21明令:你為耶和華─你的神築壇，不可在壇旁栽什麼樹木『Thou shalt not plant thee a grove of any trees near unto the altar of the LORD thy God, which thou shalt make thee.』或 'Do not plant an asheira or any tree near the Altar of God' (Deuteronomy 16:21).
 Addison G. Wright, Roland E. Murphy, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, “A History of Israel” in The Jerome Biblical Commentary, (Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990), p. 1247.
 The first mention of a Nativity feast appears in the Philocalian calendar, a Roman document from 354 CE, which lists December 25th as the day of Jesus’ birth.
 Increase Mather, A Testimony against Several Prophane and Superstitious Customs, Now Practiced by Some in New England (London, 1687), p. 35. See also Stephen Nissenbaum, The Battle for Christmas: A Cultural History of America’s Most Cherished Holiday, New York: Vintage Books, 1997, p. 4.
 Nissenbaum, p. 3.
 David I. Kertzer, The Popes Against the Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001, p. 74.
 Kertzer, p. 33, 74-5.
 Clement Miles, Christmas Customs and Traditions: Their History and Significance, New York: Dover Publications, 1976, pp. 178, 263-271.