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[轉載] [佛教常识]“佛陀”的含义与“佛陀”的十种别名

【佛、薄伽梵者,谓:如来、应、正等觉、明行圆满、善逝、世间解、无上士调御丈夫、天人师、佛、薄伽梵。】



  
这是称颂、忆念如来具足十种功德名号。“佛、薄伽梵”是总标,以下是别列十号
  
“佛”,完整的古印度语音应为“佛陀”(Buddha),是“觉悟”或“增广”的意思。由于佛已“断尽烦恼障和所知障,觉慧增广”,故得是称号。又由于佛“为救护彼无知睡眠所昏迷之有情,令其醒悟”,故得是称号。又由于佛“对于一切所知境界,妙智增广”,故得是称号。一是约断德圆满;二是约悲德圆满;三是约智德圆满;是三种德具足圆满,号称“佛陀”。
  
薄伽梵”(Bhagavan),也是古印度语音译,有“破坏”、“具有”二义。显示佛能破除四魔,于破四魔中尤以破除天魔为最。谓佛在菩提树下,破除魔军而成正觉,号“薄伽梵”。又“薄伽梵”具有“自在、炽盛、端严、名称、吉祥、尊贵”六义而得名。汉文经典专就“尊贵”一义译称“世尊”。六义广如《佛地经》说。《瑜伽师地论》就破与具二义而说,即“能破诸大力军众,具多功德,名薄伽梵”。
  
如来”,梵语“多陀阿伽陀”(Tathagata),藏文也有译“如去”的,是“如实无倒宣说正法”之意。《瑜伽》说:“言无虚妄,故名如来”。正是显诸佛如实说法的德号。
  
”,是梵语“阿罗汉”(Arhat)的意译,古译为“应供”。谓佛已断尽一切烦恼,应受人天供养而无愧德。

“阿罗汉”原具三义,曰“杀贼”,曰“无生”,曰“应供”。

“阿罗”是贼义,“汉”是杀义;佛已能断尽损害有情一切烦恼怨贼故。

“阿罗”是生义,“汉”是无义;“阿罗汉”于五趣、四生等生死法中,不复生故。

又译为“应”者,如《成唯识论》释,谓应永害烦恼怨贼,应受世间微妙供养,应不复受分段生死,故得“应”名;也即是《瑜伽》说的:“已得一切所应得义,应作世间无上福田,应为一切恭敬供养,是故名应。”

阿罗汉三义,虽为声闻乘人极果所共有;在佛的十号中,以“应永害一切烦恼怨贼”的断德圆满而立称,二乘人虽断烦恼而尚余习气故。
  
正等觉”是梵语“三藐三菩提”的意译(samyak-sambuddha)的意译,谓:佛能真正无倒遍觉诸法;有些译师译为“正遍觉知”或“正等正觉”等等。《瑜伽》称为“如其胜义觉诸法故;名正等觉”,则是显诸佛智德圆满以立号。
  
明行圆满”或“明行足”梵语“鞞侈遮罗那三般那”(Vidyacarana-sampanna)。“明”,指智证;“行”指实践修行;佛于二者圆满具足,故得是称号。
  
“明”与“行”的意义

若就法门具体内容来说,八圣支道中的正见为“明”,正思惟、正语、正业、正命、正精进,正念、正定为“行”;佛果菩提的大道,以八圣道为目为足,才能到达究竟涅盘。明如目,行如足,目足并运,直入宝所。

约三增上学说,慧是“明”,戒定是“行”,三学圆满,方能成佛。

更广泛的来说,宿命明(宿住随念智通),天眼明(生死智通)、漏尽明(漏尽智通)的三明为“明”,明前之“戒圆满、行圆满、防护圆满及现法乐住之增上心学”为“行”。
  
一般佛经中有如下的叙述,谓佛于菩提树下,最后夜思惟证得“三明”的过程是:初夜分观察前际,得宿住随念智证通,能遍见一切有情过去无量生事;中夜分遍观一切所应断法、所应证法、所应觉法,即能永断、证得、现正等觉;后夜分得漏尽证通;如是成一切智,圆满三明。
  
于三明前所应修习之“”:

第一是戒圆满,谓具六支,即“善受尸罗(戒)、安住别解脱律仪、轨则圆满、行境圆满、于诸小罪见大怖畏、受学学处”六支圆满,戒才清净;为得清净三摩地故,应修正行圆满,谓于一切威仪中安住正知

第二是防护圆满,谓使眼、耳等根,于见色闻声等境时,不取行相,不取随好,防护诸根故,即能修习妙三摩地。这里指的妙三摩地,就是现法乐住四种静处增上心学,是中以第四静虑修诸功德力量为最胜。由修得清净三摩地,即能修习六种神通,谓神境通、天耳通、他心通,加上三明,总称三明六通。
  
从清净戒、四静虑到证得三明,是为“明行圆满”。佛为人天大师,明行圆满功德之因唯佛究竟,故立是果号。
  
善逝”是梵语“修伽陀”(Sugata)的意译,也有译为“好去”、“好说”等。“逝”,是去或到义;“善”,是有不退转或究竟无余义。由不退转义,安隐而逝,说名“善逝”。外道异学虽也有得定得通,但其功德定会退失,不名善逝;二乘有学、无学所得功德虽不退失,然非圆满通达一切所知境,也不名“善逝”。于此二义唯佛为最,故立是号。
  
世间解”是梵语“路伽惫”(Lokavid)的意译,也有译为“知世间”的。佛化世间以二事显:一是洞解世间有情,谁于佛有缘,谁于佛无缘;二是调伏世间有缘有情。调佛世尊昼夜六时,常以佛眼洞察世间诸有情类,升沈诸趣,谁陷欲泥,谁乐善净;于於受化,方便济拔令出苦轮。谓于无善根者令种善根,于已种善根者令得增长,置人天路,趣涅槃城。故佛于世间,不唯洞解有情世间,亦能洞解非情的器世间,以是智德号“世间解”。故《瑜伽》说,佛是“善知世界及有情界,一切品类染净相故,名世间解。”
  
无上士调御丈夫”,是显示佛教化有缘有情世间的功德。梵语“阿耨多罗”(Anuttara),意译“无上”;“富楼沙昙藐菩罗提(purusa-damya-sarathi),意译“调御丈夫”。佛于有情中最上第一,犹如涅盘于法中最上第一。此号具四义
  
一、谓于难调伏有情中,具用殊胜调御方便法门,如贪烦恼重的难陀,嗔烦恼重的指蔓,痴烦恼重的优楼频罗迦叶等,诸难调者悉能调伏故;
二、显佛所说调伏法门殊胜易行,谓以远离欲乐、远离无益苦行、二边之八圣支道的中道教调伏有情故;
三、以最胜大涅盘果调伏有情故;
四、令所调伏有情毕竟不退故。
  
具足四义,唯佛得号“无上士调御丈夫”。佛不仅于有缘有情、即无缘有情也能普令饶益。云何无缘有情?谓无三乘解脱种姓。佛于是辈以五戒、十善方便法门,安置人天善趣。云何有缘有情?谓具三乘解脱种姓。佛于是以声闻、缘觉、菩萨之法,安置三乘三种菩提。复于不定种有情,佛终令其趣入无住大般涅盘。《瑜伽》言:“一切世间唯一丈夫,善知调心最胜方便,是故名无上士调御丈夫。”正是显示出佛化有情随机设教的殊胜功德。
  
天人师”,梵语“舍多提婆魔 舍喃”(sasta devamanusyanam),谓佛说法利生事业所依止处,唯天与人二趣。谓五趣中唯这二趣是五种姓中,无姓天人与三乘种姓所共同受生之处,诸佛唯现生人间,于人间天上说法教诫,等益有情,令趣善趣与安隐涅盘。有情诸趣中,唯人与天是能堪受佛法的法器,也唯佛能教导令其受益,故佛称天人之师。《瑜伽》说佛:“能正教诫,教授天人,令其离一切众苦,是故说佛名人天师。”
  
“佛、薄伽梵”,即“佛、世尊”的译音。具足所有功德圆满无缺,曰“佛、世尊”。:跪拜:

[ 本帖最後由 菩提草 於 2008-4-19 18:53 編輯 ]
敬禮菩薩,黑暗中寂靜凝視苦難衆生的月光
過去基督教糟糕的經驗對我受益匪淺,對佛教我更愿意以人性化,理性化的角度去看待。

對佛陀,世尊我最看重的是“天人师”這個稱謂。

原始佛典中有如下世尊的開示-----------

一、不因為他人的口傳、傳說,就信以為真。
二、不因為奉行傳統,就信以為真。
三、不因為是正在流傳的消息,就信以為真。
四、不因為是宗教經典書本,就信以為真。
五、不因為根據邏輯,就信以為真。
六、不因為根據哲理,就信以為真。
七、不因為符合常識外在推理,就信以為真。
八、不因為符合自己的預測、見解、觀念,就信以為真。
九、不因為演說者的威信,就信以為真。
十、不因為他是導師、大師,就信以為真。

一切都要經過自己智慧的思考,甚至面對至尊自己的話也應如此。

這一點對基督徒來說是當頭一棒!
原帖由 菩提草 於 2008-4-19 18:46 發表
【佛、薄伽梵者,谓:如来、应、正等觉、明行圆满、善逝、世间解、无上士调御丈夫、天人师、佛、薄伽梵。】

  ...


早上好,
早晨,菩提草哥哥

,,,,,,,,, 我不敢轻于汝等,汝等皆当作佛!'''''''''

我很喜歡 這句話,是 口琴王 哥哥 作的,

my own version designed for you : :::::
,,,,,,,,, 我不敢轻汝,汝皆当作佛!'''''''''

感謝
感+謝

:跪拜:

update : ::::: ,,,,,不'''' 和 ,,,,,佛'''' , @ 粵語 , 是 同一個韻,感謝

[ 本帖最後由 prussianz 於 2008-4-22 08:15 編輯 ]
exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛

回復 2# 秀雲 的帖子

In practical situation, for example, what treatment should I get when I am sick:

一、不因為他人的口傳、傳說,就信以為真。
Like your doctor refering you to a specialist.

二、不因為奉行傳統,就信以為真。
Like the doctor follow the common practise of the hospital.  (Such as washing hands before surgery)

三、不因為是正在流傳的消息,就信以為真。
Like the doctor follow the common knowledge of medicine  For example, the bateria theory.

四、不因為是宗教經典書本,就信以為真。
Like the doctor follow his medical reference.

五、不因為根據邏輯,就信以為真。
Like the doctor examination and interpretation of the patient.

六、不因為根據哲理,就信以為真。
Like the doctor's ethic in medical practise such as the disclosure of your information to you.

七、不因為符合常識外在推理,就信以為真。
Like the doctor belief in somthing counter-intuitive, such as evolution theory.

八、不因為符合自己的預測、見解、觀念,就信以為真。
Like the doctor found cases after cases of patient with 'expected' result of getting better

九、不因為演說者的威信,就信以為真。
Like the doctor's authority

十、不因為他是導師、大師,就信以為真。
Like the doctor academic standing

一切都要經過自己智慧的思考,甚至面對至尊自己的話也應如此。
Instead, try to think of a remedies by yourself.

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Try to think of it, there is 3 categories

a) 他人的口傳、傳說 (66% of the world do not believe in Christianity)
b) 奉行傳統 (Like Enlightment tradition of doubting)
c) 正在流傳的消息 (Like Evolution Theory)
d) 是宗教經典書本 (no Christian I know of believe in Christianity merely because it is a religious text.  Otherwise, they will believe in Islam with Koran.)

Why is it they are saying it if it is false?  What is the odds that I am not intelligent enough to understand the underlying reason compare to they are ALL wrong?

e) 根據邏輯 (Christianity is self contradictory)
f) 根據哲理
g) 符合常識外在推理 (We can induce by the marking of sea level with various technique to know Noah flood did not happen)
h) 符合自己的預測、見解、觀念 (Double blind prayer experiment show it has no effect)

What should thinking base on without all these objectivity?  Common sense?  Divine relevation (Hullucation)?

i) 演說者的威信 (Scientist in general do not believe in Christianity)
j) 他是導師、大師 (The academia is filled with non-believer)

If I am not a doctor, what is the odd that the specialist is correct and I am wrong in medical question?  Do the "holy water" priest  or the 'spiritual healing' therapist have the same weight over a medical doctor opinon on health?

----------------------------
One of the problem is that time keeps flowing regardless of what we are doing.  If we hesitate, we have already pick the choice of "do nothing".

Time, is pushing us to make a decision.  We can only make choice base on probability.
原帖由 dye 於 2008-4-22 09:04 發表
In practical situation, for example, what treatment should I get when I am sick:

一、不因為他人的口傳、傳說,就信以為真。
Like your doctor refering you to a specialist.

二、不因為奉行傳統,就信以為真。
...


wow ,利害 !!
exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛
a, b, c, d, i, j have the same problem:  Without complete knowledge of the underlying observation behind what people said/write, it is impossible to know if it is true or not.

HOWEVER, there is a difference between WHO said/write it.  
Chance is high that what parents tell their kids to do is beneficial to the kids.  
Chance is high that what the doctor tells their patients to do is more intelligent than a serpent handling priest.

It is faith in people (certain people depending on topic).  As no one is all knowing, we have to stick togather and let the others be our 'eyes' and 'ear'.  

The real wisedom is WHO should we trust at a particular situation? (Which will draw us to e, f, g, h)
------------

e,f,g,h is pretty much science or objectivity in thinking.  

Aristotle can meditate all he likes in a cave but it is too easy to go astray without experiments by Gallileo with a ball.

When the snake-oil salesman medicine keep failing, it does tell us something about the oil, if not the salesman too!

[ 本帖最後由 dye 於 2008-4-22 09:35 編輯 ]
原帖由 dye 於 2008-4-22 09:04 發表
In practical situation, for example, what treatment should I get when I am sick:

一、不因為他人的口傳、傳說,就信以為真。
Like your doctor refering you to a specialist.

二、不因為奉行傳統,就信以為真。
...


你的思辨能力和英語水平......

One of the problem is that time keeps flowing regardless of what we are doing.  If we hesitate, we have already pick the choice of "do nothing".
Time, is pushing us to make a decision.  We can only make choice base on probability.

你的意思是否是-------一切的理論,傳統,信仰都是“相對的”,我們在“"do nothing”之后終究還是要做出自己的選擇?Time, is pushing us to make a decision.

另外,Double blind prayer experiment是什么玩意兒?感謝!
What I mean is something I study in 'Industrial Managment', something handy when managing a factory of any sort.

Just like Budha, perhaps it is best by illustrating rather than explaining in words, eh?

-------------------------
For example, while we are thinking of which medical treatment to take, by say studying, we have chosen to do nothing to our illness.

Time has never stop while we are busy 'figuring it out'.  In an engineering situation: while we are thinking of a way to build a dam, the village is already flooded (and life lost).  A little mud dam is better than no dam.

When building a bridge, engineer knows it will break apart with a range of probability.  However, building it is still better than waiting and thinking until a perfect bridge can be built. Because as we wait for the perfect bridge, no one can cross the river and people on both side will suffer the hardship.

If the factory is on fire, and you are offered 3 choices
a) Do nothing
b) Run away
c) Try the extinguisher

People who think too long/too much has already choose a) as time passed.  Instead, bravely taking either b) or c) based on an immeidate/probabistic evaluation can be a solution.

The motto of engineers "With unlimited resources and time, anything is possible.  But since we have neither, we will have to decide." (And it is one of the core meaning of 'engineering')  
----------

And so the Budha compare our current life to a person getting shot by a poisonous arrow.  

He also knows the urgency of the choice.  Sitting and thinking too much with an arrow sticking on our flesh) will eventually/quickly lead to death.

There is only 70 years of life.  If we take out the time of performing neccessity of living, not much time is left for thinking.  Perhaps that is why monks live a simple life to decrease the neccessity.
----------------

Double blind prayer experiment is an experiment setup by scientist to test the effect of prayer on patient.

The conclusion is obvious: prayer has no (physical) effect.

The joke is that if prayer has any effect, the Royal family of UK is often pray to 'long live'.  Yet the Royal family show no exception in the life expectancy.
原帖由 dye 於 2008-4-22 09:04 發表
In practical situation, for example, what treatment should I get when I am sick:

哈,好奇搭咀一下:怎樣知道自己有病?甚麼是病?

簡單如傷風感冒,就看病徵如發燒、流鼻水等,但有時發燒、流鼻水並不代表有病,可能是過累或敏感所致。

某些「病」有潛伏期,期間算不算有病?

另外,假如自己不承認的,如精神錯亂,又是誰人能斷定自己有病?

當不確定自己是否有病時,又怎能胡亂接受所謂的治療呢?(正如基督教胡亂說人有罪,要靠耶穌得到醫治和救贖)
支持鼓勵每位離教者
Here is from The Kalama Sutta,  the sutta you refer to as "原始佛典"

"The Four Solaces"

"The disciple of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who has such a hate-free mind, such a malice-free mind, such an undefiled mind, and such a purified mind, is one by whom four solaces are found here and now.

"'Suppose there is a hereafter and there is a fruit, result, of deeds done well or ill. Then it is possible that at the dissolution of the body after death, I shall arise in the heavenly world, which is possessed of the state of bliss.' This is the first solace found by him.

"'Suppose there is no hereafter and there is no fruit, no result, of deeds done well or ill. Yet in this world, here and now, free from hatred, free from malice, safe and sound, and happy, I keep myself.' This is the second solace found by him.

"'Suppose evil (results) befall an evil-doer. I, however, think of doing evil to no one. Then, how can ill (results) affect me who do no evil deed?' This is the third solace found by him.

"'Suppose evil (results) do not befall an evil-doer. Then I see myself purified in any case.' This is the fourth solace found by him.

"The disciple of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who has such a hate-free mind, such a malice-free mind, such an undefiled mind, and such a purified mind, is one by whom, here and now, these four solaces are found."

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See how Buddha advice on taking decision without 'full knowledge'.

回復 9# 抽刀斷水 的帖子

For physical sickness hidden in the body,
a) There is a yearly examination.  Check for breast cancer, woman.

b) Following the principle behind Buddha, get a vacination (See P10)  Get an insurance if you are worry about the economic consequences.  

c) Ask you family doctor about it.

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For physical sickness not hidden,

a) See a licenced doctor, get a few doctors and specialist if you have it is a me doubt (narrowing the probability curve by taking a larger sample).  This is a normal trick if you are testing for AIDS.

You are always welcome to ask medical advice from your family doctor.  This will be the next step in our medical system in HK. (as it is already used in other more medically advanced countries)

b) Become a doctor if you have that kind of resource and time

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If it is a mental illness, I do not see a way out.

a) Get a doctor of the field.  Get a few if you have doubt to narraow down the probability.

b) Become a doctor if you can still manage

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As I said, WHO said it matter.  Before believing the words of the priest, check out his performance on e, f, g, h.  A typical Christian priest will fail immediately on h) as there is no Adam and Eves according evidence for Theory of Evolution.

e) 根據邏輯 (Any logic in his analysis?)
f) 根據哲理 (Does he has a record ethic?)
g) 符合常識外在推理 (What is his underlying induction?)
h) 符合自己的預測、見解、觀念 (What is the underlying experimental result?)

[ 本帖最後由 dye 於 2008-4-22 11:14 編輯 ]
原帖由 dye 於 2008-4-22 10:44 發表
What I mean is something I study in 'Industrial Managment', something handy when managing a factory of any sort.

Just like Budha, perhaps it is best by illustrating rather than explaining in words, e ...


佛陀那個關于毒箭的比喻,我明白你的意思了。

“Double blind prayer experiment ”,這種實驗毫無意義。心靈的力量是現代科學難以證明的,我絲毫不低估基督徒祈禱的力量。只不過在佛教看來,祈禱無助于解脫罷了,但要尋求世間法的幫助,祈禱并非無益。我給你轉篇南懷瑾佛教修行教學講座稿中的一段---------


當年在北方,這幾十年沒有了,還有個教派,在黃河南北叫“理”門。理教不抽煙、不喝酒,戒律很清嚴,都是在家人。所以一來,一看。你是在理的啊。不錯,我在理,道理那個理,理教。理教也有密宗的,修五個字的咒語,有個咒語只五個字。傳給你了以後,你好好去修。刀也砍不進,槍也打不進來,那個神通廣大。當年我們年輕的時候都要去摸一下看。這五個字的咒語有那麽大的威力,而且不出聲的念,要命的時候才出聲,威力大得很。結果就去找師父,拜師呀!要供養拿供養,要叩頭就叩頭。不光叩頭,連叩腿都幹啊!連兩條腿跪下來。連磕頭跪下來,只要你傳給我能夠得道,結果傳了五個字秘密真言。六耳不同傳,你兩個人和師父,六個耳朵,不傳了。只能他嘴唇傳到你耳朵裏,這個秘密吧。結果傳了。五個字,我現在把它公開了,你們好好去修,也有威力無比。哪五個字啊,要不要呀?要不要聽呀?你看,好奇的又來了。我們好奇朋友。五個字,秘密得很哦。觀世音菩薩。你們不要笑哦。為什麽你,我們念起來不靈,就是因為給你這一笑,笑壞了,真的哦。他絕對的誠懇,相信。那個精神合一,它絕對起作用。所以我講我這些親自經歷的故事給你們聽,我比釋迦牟尼佛拜的那些旁門左道的那些玩得多了。還有,在武漢那個階段。湖南有一派。一杯水,拿來放在手上,都不是出家人,在家人。你生病,念咒子。念完了,拿去喝了,病就好了。真的哦。也是三教合一的。這個很稀奇,結果又去拜門。那很困難了,什麽引禮師、引證師、這個師、那個師,已經把你一身都撕破了,然後才找到那個老師。找到了,總算傳給你道,他們用得靈,我用不靈,同你們一樣的。觀世音菩薩,你們嘿嘿一笑當然不靈了。結果他傳給我什麽東西啊,我以為也是大悲咒,也是密宗,不是。大學之道在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。知止而後有定,定而後能靜……我十一歲都背得滾瓜一樣的熟了,還聽你這一套,可是他們用得靈。所以,靈不靈不在經典不在咒語,還是民間中國文化三個字,誠則靈。所以基督教講信者得救,不是沒有道理啊。就是這個道理。


正如圣經所說:

你們若有信心像一粒芥菜種,就是對這座山說,‘你從這邊挪到那邊’,它也必挪去,並且你們沒有一件不能作的事了。”(太17:20)

[ 本帖最後由 秀雲 於 2008-4-22 14:10 編輯 ]

回復 11# dye 的帖子

假如患者是自然療法之類的信徒,你叫他們看醫生即是相當於殺了他們了。他們會介紹許多特別的療法,如手療、尿療、同位療法、雙氧水療法等,眼界大開。

香港推廣者有著名的周兆祥先生:http://www.simonchau.hk/

某程度上我也頗不同意西方醫學的對抗性概念,因此我小病也不會看醫生。一些大麻的愛好者,甚至認為由於多國禁止吸食大麻,導致很多人精神因而無法宣洩而產生精神病。
支持鼓勵每位離教者
原帖由 秀雲 於 2008-4-22 13:46 發表

心靈的力量是現代科學難以證明的,我絲毫不低估基督徒祈禱的力量。

證明了。證明祈禱有反效果,真神奇。
http://exchristian.hk/forum/viewthread.php?tid=989&highlight=%E7%A5%88%E7%A6%B1
原帖由 龍井樹 於 2008-4-22 14:16 發表

證明了。證明祈禱有反效果,真神奇。
http://exchristian.hk/forum/viewthread.php?tid=989&highlight=%E7%A5%88%E7%A6%B1


當然,反效果也是效果,這不正說明了心靈的力量嗎?有反效果當然也有正效果,只不過在基教中萬里挑一。不過基教那么多的見證也不一定全是說謊吧。

回復 15# 秀雲 的帖子

我一早就知道了!從前考試,老師出題:「試論世界大戰的起因」,我答:「因為大秦景教常常祈求世界和平。」
事實証明我是100分的!
de omnibus dubitandum

回復 13# 抽刀斷水 的帖子

If any treatment work, they will pass through the clinical trial required.  Quite a number of Chinese medicine has pass through the test.  The major weakness of Chinese medicine as I remember is that fact that they are poisonous in a long run (that is, the medicine will accumulate in you and kills you in the end).  It is a reasonable result for a medical field that is developed without vigorous scientific observation.

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Science is base on observation, not ideology.  If there is any substance in the medical claim, there are many medical journal to submit a paper.

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Read on Economic Journal from a medical specialist about how various medicine work, you will quickly be facinated by how many tactic is employed by modern medicine.

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Doctor only tell people about the effect of weed, what the public decided to do about it is politics.  (That is, the banning of it is politics; the effect of weed is scientific question, not merely an opinion)

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If your hypothesis is "由於多國禁止吸食大麻,導致很多人精神因而無法宣洩而產生精神病", you may wish to demonstrate the point scientifically.  Or at least statistically first.

Is there more people with mental sickness in US, China, HK, etc, as compare to Netherland?

Clinically, we can have subjects with mental illness taking weed and check the effect afterward.

Or, if the effect you claim is preventive, we can study groups in the society who takes weed compare with those that do not and compare their mental health.

From evidence collected at this moment in time, smoking of weed is positively correlated to mental illness.
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PS Medical circle KNOW about the placebo effect.

[ 本帖最後由 dye 於 2008-4-22 15:06 編輯 ]
Incorrect the study only show that when you think someone is praying for you, your health is worst.  Whether the person is praying for you does not matter. (They split the group to 4)

The actually praying has no effect whatsoever.

It only further the point of psychological effect have on people.  When you know someone is praying for you, it stresses you out.
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The key problem in here is not that the Christian is lying, but that fact that we, as human, have limited natural mathematic ability.

We only improve this ability after education and be able to see the faulty thinking.

回復 15# 秀雲 的帖子

我說真神奇,不過是跟你開玩笑。你先讀一讀那篇報導,讀完你就會明白為什麼會出現反效果。原因其實一點都不神奇。

回復 19# 龍井樹 的帖子

It prove exactly Richard Dawkins point that pseudo-science user reject science when it contradicts their claim

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“Double blind prayer experiment ”,這種實驗毫無意義。心靈的力量是現代科學難以證明的,我絲毫不低估基督徒祈禱的力量。

------------
But jump quickly to science when it has any hints that suuport their claim

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當然,反效果也是效果,這不正說明了心靈的力量嗎?有反效果當然也有正效果,只不過在基教中萬里挑一。
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