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(轉載) 認識香港基督教的派系

本帖最後由 哈佛專家 於 2016/8/17 07:22 編輯

香港的基督教的支系(天主教除外)

1. 浸信會(Baptist) - 浸信會在香港和台灣都是數一數二的教會支系
2. 宣道會(Christianity and Missionary Alliance) - 宣道會在香港僅次於浸信會,在台灣亦有一定的規模
3. 摩門教(即末世聖徒教會) - 在新教和天主教皆被視為異端
4. 基督復臨安息日會(Adventist) - 包括基督復臨安息日會(Adventist)及耶和華見證人(Jevowah's Witness),前者被視為邊緣教會,後者在廣大的華人社會中被視為異端

5. 五旬節教會(Pentecostal Church)及神召會(Assemblies of God) - 台灣有神召會,但沒有五旬節教會
6. 信義會 (Evangelical Lutheran Church,實際應該叫福音路德會) - 路德會在香港已經較為式微,台灣的路德系的教會亦較為式微
7. 循道衛理會 (Free Methodist) 、衛理公會 (Methodist) 、循理會 (Free Methodist) - Methodism(循道宗)的三個支系。在香港較為活躍的播道會(Evangelical Free Church)亦屬此系。
8. 長老會 (Presbyterian) - 台灣的長老教會的勢力最為強大,干涉政治亦最多。脫貽自歐洲的加爾文宗。
9. 基督徒教會 (The Church of Christ) - 來自西方的復原運動(Restoration Movement)的一部分。
10. 三自教會 - 中華基督教會 (Church of Christ in China),由於曾經嚴重受到美國的影響,現在已大不如前
11. 華人福音派團體  - 香港中國信徒佈道會、華人基督會,亦受到美國及加拿大的影響
12. 英國聖公會 (Anglican/Episcopal) - 台灣聖公會的信徒的數目很少
13. 禮賢會 (Rhenish Church) - 前稱巴勉差會(Barmen Mission),曾經受德國的敬虔主義及英國的影響,在香港有一定的規模。
14. 其他

註:真耶穌教會是一個較為本土化的教會,始創於民國初年,由中國人創立。
註:長老教會、循理宗(循道宗)與浸信會是台灣基督教的三大教會。浸信會是美國創立的。香港和台灣都受到美國的很深影響。所以長老會及浸信會才會有這麼多的信徒。
註:香港的基督教中,最多人參加的教會依次為浸信會及宣道會,其次為循道宗(Methodism)的三支教會。
註:靈糧堂派由中國人趙世光牧師先後在上海、香港及台灣創立,屬在香港及台灣奠基的一個教會組織。比較接近浸信會與西方的福音派但又不是。
註:近年來台灣尚有貴格會(Quakers)的創立,亦是引進自西方的。
註:天主教教會和長老教會在台灣的傳教歷史最久,從一八五十年代或一八六十年代開始,約有一百多年的歷史,亦是台灣兩個最大的教派,以長老教會的馬偕博士在1871年開始在台灣傳教為分界線。
註:自一九九七年回歸中國後,香港的更反教中許多外國教會在香港的支部悄悄退出香港。而許多更反教的教會亦開始本地化,並成立一些本土化的香港教會。最著名的例子是香港的崇真會。它是路德派和加爾文派的混合。
註:中國信徒佈道會由王永信牧師在1961年在美國底特津市創立。接著,在台灣、加拿大等地傳教。在今天,中國信徒佈道會在美國、台灣、加拿大、香港、澳洲甚至日本、菲律賓等地都有分會。

2009/2/20 11:33 編輯
原帖由 朱瘋天 於 2008-11-3 09:37 發表
香港的基督教的支系(天主教除外)

1. 浸信會(Baptist) - 浸信會在香港和台灣都是數一數二的教會支系
2. 宣道會(Christianity and Missionary Alliance) - 宣道會在香港僅次於浸信會,在台灣亦有一定的規模
3. 摩門教( ...

3. 摩門教(即末世聖徒教會) - 在新教和天主教皆被視為異端


fundamentally , any 新教 和 天主教 皆為 異端



ThANKs

exChristian.info前基督徒,主力:淚儿/泪儿,WEIYAN,龙井树。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。警告 基督徒:你们一定不够他们玩
realChristianities.com雪龙坛
真要命
浸信會宣道會及播道會都係基要派
九龍城基督徒會都係基要派
香港的基督教教會有接近一半都係基要派
福音派輸俾基要派
3# 朱瘋天


播道會同福堂、部份宣道會、部份中華基督教會及部份浸信會堂會都是屬於靈恩派
4# Guest from 10.18.4.x 靈恩派好似最似精神病人!!!
以消滅基督文化為己任
嘩!
咁詳細,你自做的研究成果 ?
3# 朱瘋天

多人信基要派的一個主要原因是它們的教義清楚直接易明,絕冇含糊之處。和一些自由派的教會,信耶穌卻不信他是神,信聖經又不信那是無錯誤等等,來得直接了當。你有興趣,看看這自由派教會所信的,和另外那所教會作一比較便明白了。

http://hkpcf.tripod.com/index.html
有沒有宗教,好人都會做好事, 壞人都會做壞事。但要好人做壞事, 那需要宗教。-- 史蒂文·溫伯格(Steven Weinberg)
5# 逆源

我曾見一些靈恩派的,双目無神,站在街角向空氣亂噏嘢(為之說方言),好得人驚!亦認識一位女士以前是靈恩派的,現在不信了,仍然有說方言的能力,都幾好笑。
有沒有宗教,好人都會做好事, 壞人都會做壞事。但要好人做壞事, 那需要宗教。-- 史蒂文·溫伯格(Steven Weinberg)
(1)
To: 某遊客

小弟不過是將北美的學術界對基督宗教的研究成果加以簡化
成為香港及台灣通行的基督教支系而已
毫無神秘可言
對基督教的分類有四
福音派/基要派/自由派/靈恩派
有福音派和基要派之爭
有福音派和自由派之爭
就係咁淺


(2)
多謝撻Q猛男指教
小弟受用不盡

10# 朱瘋天

不是想將這個討論拉長嚟講,但小弟啱啱又記起了另外一些。

自由派的信仰是介乎 deist(信有神者) 和 theist(信有神及有信仰者) 之間。他們相信信耶穌和其聖經的教導是通向神的很多方法之中的其中之一,即殊途同歸之意。所以他們對其他宗教的包容性很強,亦較為理性,尊重人權,不貶低人性。所以他們從不因為種族,性別,性取向等而歧視他人。

其實就是因為理性,他們才發現基要派教義不合理之處,從而分支出來。

所知嘅係咁多,希望幫到你!
有沒有宗教,好人都會做好事, 壞人都會做壞事。但要好人做壞事, 那需要宗教。-- 史蒂文·溫伯格(Steven Weinberg)
4. 復臨安息日會(Adventist) - 台灣沒有此教會
朱瘋天 發表於 2008/11/2 17:37

唔係喎

基督復臨安息日會
台灣區會
de omnibus dubitandum
唔係喎

基督復臨安息日會
台灣區會
沙文 發表於 2009/2/19 18:41


多謝指導
已經更正
再次多謝撻Q猛男指教
点解冇邪傻瑕見證人呢?您唔當佢係基督教派?
http://www.watchtower.org/ch/index.html
de omnibus dubitandum
本帖最後由 朱瘋天 於 2009/2/20 11:34 編輯

耶和華見證人好像係異端喎
係華人社會中不受歡迎
據北美學術界
邪傻瑕見證人和基督復臨安息日會屬同一組


已經改正
Tuesday, 09 November 2004  
The Christian Family Tree
The Rev. Epke VanderBerg

Protestant minister, member of the Episcopal family and of the Grand Rapids Interfaith Dialogue Association

We present here short portraits of main families and communities within Christianity, particularly those in The Middle East, Europe, and North America. The descriptions provide some primary characteristics and a method of categorizing Christianity into fifteen families. A major resource for this summary was the work of J. Gordon Melton in The Encyclopedia of American Religions (Triumph Books, 1989, New York). Readers are encouraged to explore Melton's detailed and fascinating work.

Looking back down the many branches of Christianity, we see a tree called Jesus the Christ. Beyond this trunk, Christianity is rooted in God's call to Abraham in the land of Ur. From the time of Jesus into the 20th century, the roots divided and multiplied, dipping into soils and water foreign to its beginning, affecting its color and character. Throughout its history, however, it never forgot its beginning, even though its memories of who Jesus was and what he taught, waxed and waned through time and place.

(A) Western Liturgical Family: The four oldest Christian families are the following: the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the non-Chalcedonian Orthodox tradition, the Western Catholic tradition and the Anglican tradition. A strong liturgical life characterizes these Christian families, along with true-creeds, sacraments, language and culture, which find their expression in their liturgy. Most of these families observe seven sacraments: baptism, eucharist, holy orders, unction, marriage, confirmation and penance. Two other characteristics mark these churches: allegiance to creeds, and belief in Apostolic succession. Even though these churches evolved from one common beginning, they unfolded into separate entities with Christianity's spread into other cultures.

The Eastern Orthodox family, its authority centered in the cities of Antioch, Alexandria and Constantinople, split from the Western Catholic tradition in 1054 AD. The Western Catholic tradition, based in Rome and entrenched in Western Europe, exercised strong political and religious authority. The Anglican tradition in England broke with Rome in the 16th century when Henry VIII saw opportunity for an independent church that would give him his desired divorce and financial freedom for battle. The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion and The Book of Common Prayer established it as a separate liturgical tradition. In the immigration to North America and after the American Revolutionary War, the Anglican Church became known, in 1787, as the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.

(B) Eastern Liturgical Family: Political, cultural and doctrinal differences separated the Eastern Orthodox churches from the Roman churches in 1054. Thereafter, and not having a Pope, this family was governed by Patriarchs who have equal authority and are in communion with each other. Even though the family does not demand celibacy of its priests (as long as they are married before their ordination), monks, who are celibate, are the only members who attain the office of bishop. This family does not recognize the authority of the Bishop in Rome, nor that part of the Chalcedonian Creed that says that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son.

A number of groups fall into this family:

Nestorians: This group, recognizing Christ's two natures, does not believe that Christ had two equal natures and that Mary bore only the human nature of Christ—she did not bear God (Mary is not theotikos).

Monophysites: This group believes that Christ is of one person (mono) and of one nature (physis); it rejects the two-nature position of the Nestorians.

The Armenians: Established in Armenia as a bishopric in 260, this group customarily celebrates Holy Communion only on Sunday, using pure wine [without water] and unleavened bread. Infants are served immediately after baptism. Under persecution by the Turks in 1890, many moved to North America. Controversy soon followed: would the pro-Soviet dominance of Armenia govern or would the Armenian nationalists?

Syrian Churches: under the leadership of Jacob Baradeus (followers were often called Jacobites), who was a monophysite, the Syrian churches spread throughout the Mediterranean region and beyond.

Coptic Churches of Egypt and Ethiopia: Formerly one of the largest Christian groups in the world, this group diminished through persecution. Today, found mainly in Egypt, its numbers are increasing. The Ethiopian Church differs from the Coptic on several points: 1) accepts Apocrypha as Scripture, 2) venerates the Sabbath along with Sunday, 3) recognizes Old Testament figures as saints, and 4) observes many Old Testament regulations on food and purification.

(C) Lutheran Family: Martin Luther, in cooperation with German princes, brought about the first successful breach with the Roman Catholic Church. Even though October 31, 1517, is often thought to be the start of the Lutheran Church, a more persuasive argument may be made for the year 1530, in which the Augsburg Confession was published. This confession became the standard that congregations used to justify their independent existence and distinguished the churches that used written confessions as confessing churches. Luther taught that salvation is by grace through faith, rather than works and faith, and that the Bibleis the rule of faith and sole authority for doctrine. Luther, in distinction from other Reformation churches, placed greater emphasis on the sacramental liturgy and understood the eucharist as consubstantiation (Christ present but elements not changed) in distinction from the Roman Catholic tradition of transubstantiation (elements changed into Christ's essence). Luther's translation of the Bible into the German vernacular (1532-34) became the standard for the German language and sparked the use of the vernacular in the Lutheran liturgy. Through Luther, many new hymns came into use and changed the complexion of the liturgy.

(D) Reformed-Presbyterian Family: The force behind this family is John Calvin, who established the Reformed church in Geneva, Switzerland, in the 1540s. The Reformed churches distinguish themselves from the other Christian families by their theology (Reformed) and the church government (Presbyterian). Calvin derived his Reformed theology from the major premise of God's sovereignty in creation and salvation. He taught that God predestined some to salvation and that atonement is limited to those whom God has elected. Today, a strict or lenient interpretation of predestination separates many Reformed churches. On the continent, the churches were known as Reformed; in the British Isles they came to be known as Presbyterian. The Reformed churches were one with other Protestant churches in adherence to the authority of the early Christian creeds and believing in the Trinity, salvation by grace through faith, and that the Bibleis the sole authority for faith and doctrine (in opposition to the Roman Catholics' position of salvation by faith and works, and of authority in the Bibleand tradition). These churches did not concern themselves with apostolic succession, but with the pure preaching of the Gospel (predominantly a teaching function) and in the pure administration of the sacraments (baptism and eucharist). In the eucharist, God, who is present, can be apprehended by faith; this is in opposition to the Lutherans and Roman Catholics who maintain God's special presence in the elements.

(E) Pietist-Methodist Family: Three groups of churches fall under this category: the Moravian Church, the Swedish Evangelical churches and the Methodist (Wesleyan) churches. As a movement of pietism, these churches reacted to Protestantism as practiced in the late 17th century. They reacted to the rigidity and systematic doctrine of the scholastic Lutheran and Calvinist theologians. Not wishing to leave their established churches, they wanted a shift from scholasticism to spiritual experience. They advocated a Bible-centered faith, the experience of the Christian life, and giving free expression of faith in hymns, testimony and evangelical zeal. Through the early work of Philip Jacob Spener and August Hermann Francke, and using home studies, their work rejuvenated the Moravian Church in 1727, influenced John Wesley and helped establish the Swedish Evangelical Church. In their work they were open to traditional practices and beliefs and sought life within the forms of the traditional churches.

Methodists are characterized by their dissent from the Calvinist teachings on predestination and irresistible grace. In 1784, at a Christmas conference, the Methodists in America formed the Methodist Episcopal Church. Its history in North America reflects the history of other denominations, including their relationships to Old World governments, ecclesiastical affiliations, and changing North American political patterns.

(F) Holiness Family: Through the influence of John Wesley's teaching of perfection, the holiness movement uses Matthew 5:48 as its theme: "Be ye perfect as my Father is perfect." It is distinct from modern Wesleyism and other Protestant churches by how it understands the framework of holiness and perfection. These believers have traditionally separated themselves from Christians who did not strive high enough for perfection. Wesley, however, seeing the practical problems with perfection or sinlessness, then stressed love as the primary theme for Christians, while the holiness movement continued to stress sinlessness. Holiness, or the sanctification experience, is the end work of a process that starts with accepting Christ as one's personal savior (being "born again"). Having accepted Christ, one then grows in grace with the help of the Holy Spirit. The second work of grace comes when the Holy Spirit cleanses the heart of sin and provides the power for living the Christian life. Living the life of holiness results in banning certain forms of behavior as inappropriate for the Christian. This tendency resulted in the adoption of a strict set of codes of behavior. However, groups of churches, depending upon their understanding of holiness -- whether it comes instantaneously or later—established their own independent churches.

(G) Pentecostal Family: Today's Pentecostal family is usually traced back to the work of Rev. Charles Parham and his experience at Bethel Bible College in 1901. However, the movement has also had a long history replete with the experiences usually associated with it. What makes this family distinct from other Protestant churches is not their doctrinal differences; it is their form of religious experience and their practice of speaking in tongues—called glossolalia. Tongue speaking is a sign of baptism by the Holy Spirit, a baptism that often is accompanied by other forms of spiritual gifts such as healing, prophecy, wisdom, and discernment of spirits. Pentecostals seek the experience, interpret events from within it, and work to have others share in it. Those who do not manifest the experience are thought often to be less than full of the Spirit. Pentecostal worship services appear to be more spontaneous than the traditional churches; however, Pentecostal services repeat a pattern of seeking the experience and showing the desire to talk about it. Because it is shaped by cultural forces, Pentecostalism appears in different forms, emphasizes different gifts, yet collects similar minds into its community. Neo-Pentecostalism, however, is a recent phenomenon, and has occurred predominantly in established churches that have found room for this movement.

(H) European Free-Church Family: While Luther and Calvin advocated a fairly close relationship with the state, 16th century radical reformers from within the Roman Catholic Church advocated a complete break with the state church. Their doctrines resembled many of the Protestant doctrines, but their ecclesiology differed. They thought the visible Church to be a free-association of adults who had been baptized as believers (as opposed to being baptized as infants) and who avoided worldly ways. The free-church family is thought to have started on December 25, 1521, when one of the leaders celebrated the first Protestant communion service, a service format that is followed by much of Protestantism. From this group evolved the Mennonites, the Amish, the Brethren, the Quakers and the Free Church of Brethren. Because many of them shunned allegiance to the government, they suffered persecution. Suffering persecution, many of them moved to North America and established congregations there.

Many members of these groups, particularly Quakers and Mennonites, are pacifists in their response to war; at the same time, they are highly active in their work to prevent war and in their relief efforts worldwide.

(I) Baptist Family: As a free association of adult believers, Baptists make up the second largest religious family on the American landscape. Though they may also be related to the continental free-church family, American Baptists seem more related to British Puritanism. In general, they teach that the creeds have a secondary place to Scripture, that baptism is by immersion and administered only to believing and confessing adults, that the Lord's supper (not understood as a sacrament, but as an ordinance) is a memorial, that salvation is a gift of God's grace, and that people must exercise their free will to receive salvation. Even though they are a free association, they have organized themselves into various groupings, depending upon emphases of creed and the necessity for control, and at times by differences in theological perspectives due to the American phenomenon of regionalism (e.g., Southern and Northern Baptist conventions).

(J) Independent Fundamentalist Family: Following the lead of Englishman John Nelson Darby (1800-1882), Independent Fundamental families distinguish themselves from Baptists by their belief in dispensationalism. The Fundamentalists believe the Bibleis a history of God's actions with people in different periods. Because of apparent Biblical contradictions, they resolve those differences by assigning Biblical passages to different dispensations. By failing to meet God's commands, God's economy establishes new paths to follow, which in the present dispensation, leads to the final dispensation in which Christ is recog<->nized as the supreme universal authority. This dispensational framework has resulted in much speculation about prophecy of the Last Times. Another distinguishing feature of this family is the belief that the Church is only a unity of the Spirit, and not of organ<->ization. The Fundamentalist family frequently uses the Scofield Reference Bible as a major source for doctrine.
(K) Adventist Family: The feature that distinguishes the Adventist family from other Christian groups is their belief in the expectation or imminent return of Christ when Christ will replace the old order of the world with an order of joy and goodness. When Christ comes again, he will establish a millennial (a thousand-year) reign in which unbelievers will have a second chance to accept Christ's Lordship. Even though a belief in the imminent return has long roots, it was heightened with the work of William Miller, a poor New York farmer. He believed that Biblical chronology could be deciphered, a belief that prompted him to predict Christ's return between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844. The 50,000 people who followed these teachings, and who experienced the non-return, retrenched. Rather than seeing a literal return of Christ that failed, one group advocated a spiritualized return—following the teachings of Charles Taze Russell—in which the event is understood as a "heavenly or internal event." The Adventist Family shares many of the Baptist teachings, from which much of the family has its genesis. Some of the more distinctive teachings of the family (but not all) are the following: 1)the imminent return of Christ, 2) denial of a person's immortality, 3) Old Testament laws are effective, including the observance of the Sabbath (Saturday), 4) rejection of the belief in a Hell, 5) Christ's death counters the death penalty of Adam passed to his children by inheritance, 6) that the Church is the suffering body of Christ and offers a spiritual sacrifice of atonement to God, and 7) that God's name is Yahweh.

Some of the more well-known families that have evolved from the millennial expectation are the Seventh Day Adventists, Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints, the Jehovah's Witnesses, British Israel Movement, and the WorldWide Church of God.

Jehovah's Witnesses, who trace their roots to Charles Taze Russell, mentioned above, prefer to separate themselves from the Christendom that was founded nearly 300 years after Jesus' death, believing that its beliefs deviate greatly from what Jesus taught. For instance, they do not accept Christendom's belief in the doctrine of the Trinity, which teaches that Jesus is God, though he is identified as God's Son. They do not use the cross as a symbol; yet Jesus was the promised Messiah and did provide the legal means of rescuing mankind from the consequences of Adams's sin, thus fulfilling the requirements for the new covenant which would bring faithful people into the promised earthly Paradise. Today, Jehovah's Witnesses form a large international organization, well-known for its door-to-door evangelistic methods and its belief that many who are now living will survive when God's Kingdom brings an end to all present governments. Watch Tower, the denominational publishing company, provides Bible-study and educational materials.

(L) The Liberal Family: Because yesterday's liberal may be today's conservative, the word liberal can be somewhat ambiguous. Most often, however, members of this family are identified as being against the mainstream theistic position of the dominant culture in Western society. The Liberal family, depending upon orientation, finds itself somewhere among the three positions of unitarianism, universalism and atheism. Unitarianists think that God is one, that the Trinity does not exist; the universalists think that all will be saved, that Hell does not exist; the atheists reject the idea of a transcendental God. Liberalism's American origins developed in reaction to New England's Calvinism. However, the genesis of Liberalism is most often thought to rest in the work of Michael Servetus, martyred by John Calvin in Geneva. Liberals have championed human rights, the need for education and the high worth of every person. By removing God from cosmic calculations, life's answers could only come from two other sources: human intuition—as in the position of Transcendentalists—and human reason—as in the Rationalist position. Early 18th century liberals advocated that people could improve the world through reason. Nineteenth century liberalism, seeing the results of scientific thought, expanded the above with evolution, science and materialism, seen as necessary for uncovering the essential (monotheistic) laws of the universe.

(M) Latter-Day Saints Family: Joseph Smith, in the fervor of revivalist movements sweeping New York in the early 19th century, received at the hands of an angel in 1827 gold plates written in what he described as a reformed Egyptian language. By means of two crystal-like stones, the Urim and Thummim, this translation has been become known as the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon claims to be the history of two tribes, the Jeredites and the Israelites. The Jeredites moved to North America after the Tower of Babel; the Israelites moved to North America after the destruction of Jerusalem in the 6th century BC. Joseph Smith published a number of other works including the Book of Moses, the Book of Abraham and the Book of Commandments (now called the Doctrine and Covenants). The early history of Mormonism includes persecution, schisms and violence, culminating in the murder of Joseph Smith in Carthage, Illinois, June 27, 1844. In the ensuing power struggle, Brigham Young moved his group to Salt Lake City, Utah, where he established the dominant branch of Mormonism. Another branch, which resides in Independence, Missouri, claiming Joseph Smith III as successor to his father, is known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Several major Mormon beliefs are the following: 1) affirmation of a trinitheism (not Christian trinity) of the Father, Jesus and Holy Spirit; 2) denial of original sin and the necessity of obedience to certain articles of faith for salvation; 3) a specific church hierarchy; 4) the Word of God consists of the Bible, the Book of Mormon and the Pearl of Great Price; 5) revelation is open and added to the Doctrine and Covenants when received; and 6) the future Kingdom of Zion will be established in North America—either in Independence, Missouri, or Salt Lake City, Utah.

(N) Communal Family: Citing references to the early Christian Church, the communal family desires to share all its worldly possessions with other members of the group. Communalism made a serious start in the fourth century with the development of monasticism, a movement that thought the Western Catholic tradition brought everyone into the church rather than seeing the Church as the body of true believers. Monasticism thought the principle of equality could be achieved through poverty and renunciation of the world. Francis of Assisi, thinking that monasticism did not represent true poverty (monastic orders had become very wealthy), advocated poverty of use as a method of reform. The Roman Catholic Church did not accept his vision, but saw it as a threat. The Taborites and the Munsterites, shortly after the Reformation, set up several communities, but, for a variety of reasons, failed. After 1860, visionaries and reformists began the most active era in the building of communities. In North America, the most famous and successful of these is the Hutterite community. Having a similar background to Russian Mennonites, today these people have established and maintain well over 300 communities.

(O) Christian Science-Metaphysical Family: Concerned with the role of the Mind in the healing process, the Christian Science and the New Thought movement drew on the metaphysical traditions of the 19th century that suggested the presence of spiritual powers operating on the mind and body. Swedenborg, a prolific writer, suggested the priority of the spiritual world over the material and that the material becomes real in its correspondence to the spiritual. The Christian Bible, he also taught, must be interpreted spiritually.

In the late 1800s, Mary Baker Eddy (the founder of Christian Science) and Emma Curtis Hopkins (the founder of New Thought) built on the methodology of Swedenborg. Disease, they taught, is the result of disharmony between mind and matter. New Thought, however, is distinct from Christian Science. New Thought governs itself through ordained ministers (most of whom are women), developed a decentralized movement, emphasized prosperity (poverty is as unreal as disease), and emphasized the universal position that all religions have value. Christian Science is itself a major religion founded on American soil over 100 years ago. Its primary text, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, has sold over eight million copies worldwide.

(P) Unity School of Christianity: This is another religious organization with metaphysical inclinations. Founded more than 100 years ago and based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, Unity offers a practical approach to Christianity that helps people lead happier, healthier, more productive lives and find deeper spiritual meaning for their lives. Unity serves millions of people worldwide through its 24-hour prayer, publishing and education ministries. Through its publishing ministry, Unity produces a variety of inspirational resources for personal study and growth; Unity is a metaphysical journal and Daily Word is a devotional publication. Unity's educational ministry is designed to train and prepare Unity ministers and teachers for pastoral service and to foster personal spiritual growth.

http://www.uri.org/Christian_Family_Tree.html
(以下是2010年最新版)

香港的基督教的支系(天主教除外)

1. 浸信會(Baptist) - 浸信會在香港和台灣都是數一數二的教會支系

2. 宣道會(Christianity and Missionary Alliance) - 宣道會在香港僅次於浸信會,在台灣亦有一定的規模

3. 摩門教(即末世聖徒教會) - 在新教和天主教皆被視為異端

4. 復臨安息日會(Adventist) - 包括基督復臨安息日會(Adventist)及耶和華見證人(Jevowah's Witness),前者被視為邊緣教會,後者在廣大的華人社會中被視為異端

5. 五旬節教會(Pentecostal Church)及神召會(Assemblies of God) - 台灣有神召會,但沒有五旬節教會

6. 信義會 (Evangelical Lutheran Church,實際應該叫福音路德會) - 路德會在香港已經較為式微,台灣的路德系的教會亦較為式微

7. 循道衛理會 (Free Methodist) 、衛理公會 (Methodist) 、循理會 (Free Methodist) - Methodism(循道宗)的三個支系。在香港較為活躍的播道會(Evangelical Free Church)亦屬此系。

8. 長老會 (Presbyterian) - 台灣的長老教會的勢力最為強大,干涉政治亦最多。脫貽自歐洲的加爾文宗。

9. 基督徒教會 (The Church of Christ) - 來自西方的復原運動(Restoration Movement)的一部分。

10. 三自教會 - 中華基督教會 (Church of Christ in China),由於曾經嚴重受到美國的影響,現在已大不如前

11. 華人福音派團體  - 香港中國信徒佈道會、華人基督會,亦受到美國及加拿大的影響

12. 英國聖公會 (Anglican/Episcopal) - 台灣聖公會的信徒的數目很少

13. 禮賢會 (Rhenish Church) - 前稱巴勉差會(Barmen Mission),曾經受德國的敬虔主義及英國的影響,在香港有一定的規模。

14. 其他

註:真耶穌教會是一個較為本土化的教會,始創於民國初年,由中國人創立。

註:長老教會、循理宗(循道宗)與浸信會是台灣基督教的三大教會。浸信會是美國創立的。香港和台灣都受到美國的很深影響。所以長老會及浸信會才會有這麼多的信徒。

註:香港的基督教中,最多人參加的教會依次為浸信會及宣道會,其次為循道宗(Methodism)的三支教會。

註:靈糧堂派由中國人趙世光牧師先後在上海、香港及台灣創立,屬在香港及台灣奠基的一個教會組織。比較接近浸信會與西方的福音派但又不是。

註:近年來台灣尚有貴格會(Quakers)的創立,亦是引進自西方的。

註:天主教教會和長老教會在台灣的傳教歷史最久,從一八五十年代或一八六十年代開始,約有一百多年的歷史,亦是台灣兩個最大的教派,以長老教會的馬偕博士在1871年開始在台灣傳教為分界線。

註:自一九九七年回歸中國後,香港的更反教中許多外國教會在香港的支部悄悄退出香港。而許多更反教的教會亦開始本地化,並成立一些本土化的香港教會。最著名的例子是香港的崇真會。它是路德派和加爾文派的混合。

註:中國信徒佈道會由王永信牧師在1961年在美國底特津市創立。接著,在台灣、加拿大等地傳教。在今天,中國信徒佈道會在美國、台灣、加拿大、香港、澳洲甚至日本、菲律賓等地都有分會。

註:香港的明光社跟基督教關係很密切,尤其是跟宣道會及播道會甚至浸信會的關係也很密切。他們是主張基督教原教旨主義的信仰,極端保守。

註:九龍城基督徒會都係接近基要派。香港有接近一半的教會接近基要派,而非福音派。浸信會、宣道會、播道會及九龍城基督徒會等都係基要派。播道會同福堂、部份宣道會、部份中華基督教會及部份浸信會堂會都是屬於靈恩派。
在這裡可以找到香港的90%以上的基督教教會,主要根據香港教會名錄、香港華人基督教聯會及香港基督教協進會的名冊抄寫。

香港的基督教的宗派及總會
The denominations and associations of Protestantism in Hong Kong

二至三畫

九龍佑寧堂
九龍城基督徒會

四畫

中國基督教播道會

中華完備救恩會

中華便以利會

中華基督教會香港區會 

中華基督教福恩堂 

中華基督教閩南三一堂 

中華基督教禮賢會香港區會 

中華傳道會

中華聖潔會 

中華錫安傳道會

五旬節聖潔會 

五至六畫

平安福音堂 

竹園區神召會 

七至八畫

佑寧堂 
沙田神召會 

東方基督教會

金巴崙長老會

九畫

南亞路德會 

美中浸信會 
    浸信會為道堂 

美浸信會 
迦密山堂 

香港九龍塘基督教中華宣道會 

香港九龍閩南中華基督教會閩南堂

香港中華基督教青年會禮拜堂 

香港伯特利教會 

香港宣教會 

香港浸信宣道會聯會 

九畫

香港浸信會聯會 

香港神託會 

香港基督徒聚會所 

香港基督教新曙光教會 

香港基督教會活石堂 

香港循理會 

香港華人基督會 

香港聖公會教省

香港萬國宣道浸信聯會 

香港路德會

香港福州語福音佈道會

十畫

真理浸信教會 

真理敬拜中心

神召事工有限公司 

神召會香港區總議會 
    基督教粉嶺神召會 

國際神召會(International Christian Assembly)

荃灣基督教惠荃堂 

十一畫

基督中心堂

基督真光教會 

基督教九龍五旬節會 

基督教中國佈道會 

基督教主恩教會 

基督教平安堂 

基督教伯特利會 

基督教佈道中心

基督教協基會 

基督教牧恩堂 

基督教信心會總會 

基督教門諾會香港聯會

基督教宣聖會 

基督教復興教會 

基督教華人神召會 

基督復臨安息日會港澳區會 

基督會 

將軍澳基督教錫安堂 

教會聚會所 


十一畫

基督教宣道會香港區聯會 

基督教香港信義會
      
基督教香港崇真會

基督教恩立教會 

基督教恩霖堂(長沙灣堂) 

基督教海面傳道會禮拜堂 

基督教救世軍港澳軍區總部 

基督教傳恩堂 

基督教改革宗長老會愛加倍福音堂 

基督教新生會新生會堂 

基督教會 

基督教會以琳堂 

基督教會加利利堂 

基督教會迦密堂 

基督教會恩雨堂 

基督教會真道堂 

基督教會聖徒聚會所 

基督教聖約教會 

基督教聖恩會 

基督教善樂堂 

基督教頌主堂 

基督教福音信義會 

基督教福臨教會

基督教樂道會 

基督教潮人生命堂

基督教錫安傳道會 

基督教靈糧世界佈道會 

十二畫

喜樂福音堂 

循道衛理聯合教會 

港澳信義會 

新生命堂

篤志傳道會

韓國宣教教會

靈光堂

Calvary Church Hong Kong
Evangelical Community Church
The Ambassador International Church

(天主教香港教區)
(正教會香港及東南亞都主教教區(東正教))
本帖最後由 哈佛專家 於 2016/8/17 07:54 編輯

問﹕香港有哪些不同的基督教(Christianity)派系?

答﹕
1.        

題目:給所有未信、未認識基督教的人一點的忠告
作者:大黃傻貓GARFIELD

《寫之前》

想寫類似題目很久,不過,我承認由於種種不同原因,我沒有好好組織,也曾經有顧慮。

在 3Home(編按﹕即3Home基督教新聞組)我說「不如寫一篇文敬告所有非基,如果想返教會,要留意教會的什麼,好好防範。雖然,這樣未必幫到很多人,我想把文章廣為在網上流傳,讓非基無論選擇信或者不信基督也好,也不要墮入一些基督教黑店裡面。」我預計不到這麼多反應,所以我認為不可以就此草草交貨,應該寫多些有用的資料,一方面讓不太認識基督教的朋友從多些角度了解基督教,更重要是避開一些問題、誤區。


《背景》

我是一個年青時候受浸的信徒,我是浸信會(Baptist)會友,返教會十多年,但是自小已經接觸基督教。因為父母想我入名校,把我送入一間聖公會的幼稚園、再入某教會小學。此後足足十四年接觸基督教信仰,但是我不是自小信主。

其實未信主的日子,香港也曾經報道過有一些教會的負面新聞,當時基督教雜誌報道過 「香港X教會」和「香港X的教會」,以及有少女學生手抱聖經跳樓的事情。當時我認為基督教是一個奇怪的宗教。

我不談論信主經歷,但是信主的年間,香港社會轉變很快,同樣基督教界也十年人事幾番新,有教會擴展,也有些不能維持。

香港基督教佔人口只有約百分之五,但是大小教會林立,足有三千多間,其中良莠不齊。 年少時候聽聞的例子並非最極端的,但是從升讀其他大專院的朋友聽來,卻有發生一些人初歸信基督,誤入有問題的教會,心靈受盡創傷﹔或者校園裡面有些自稱基督徒的人行事偏激乖張。當時沒有太多時間去考究,而事實上,我相信我就是問自己教會牧師也未必一定知道。後來開始網上活動,才發現基督教圈子是絕對不單純、有各類的人。當中有一些,我認為無論是否信徒都應該避開。

本文目的,不是傳教,而是作為選擇教會的一個「消費指南」,希望讓對基督教認識少的人帶來一些基本認識,避開部份有問題的教會。

本文目的不是傳福音,也不會介紹什麼宗派教會給人,一切仍然由讀者決定。我希望讀者如果自己想返教會﹐或者有朋友想返教會(你未必想他返!),都有機會給這些資訊他們。我希望幫助人去避開一些真的有問題的教會。


《基督教?基督教!!》

由最悶的歷史開始罷。 香港人普遍認識的基督教,其實指新教(Protestantism),和天主教(Roman Catholic),東正教(Eastern Orthodox),都屬於廣義的「基督宗教」(Chrisitianity)的三大主流。其中以新教(香港統稱為基督教)最活躍,其次是天主教。他們社會上面比較多人知道的,是他們辦的學校、社會服務團體、慈善機構、醫院等,很多早在百多年前已經在香港立足,開展不同工作直至現在。最初來港的主要是英國聖公會,後來北美洲的宣教士亦到此為來華建立據點。


《主流教會》

香港有數個規模比較大而多堂會的主要宗派﹕聖公會(英國國教)、循道會、長老會、中華基督教會、播道會、浸信會、宣道會、信義會、崇真會、路德會、五旬節會、神召會等。而以獨立教會起家的教會有﹕平安福音堂、喜樂福音堂、香港基督徒聚會所等。天主教約廿三萬人,新教徒約四十萬,東正教最少人(編按﹕截至二○○二年,香港只有一間東正教的堂)。因為香港宗教自由,所以任何基督教派都有她的堂,例如門諾會是比較小的教會,宗派數目有二十多個。

由于宗派眾多,本文實在不可以盡錄,而且宗派、堂會數目幾年變化都很大,我建議可以向幾個基督教的聯合機構查。香港新教皆會組成聯會共同進行一些工作,由于申請入會有一定要求,所以這些機構只有部份教會的資料。

香港主要的基督教連會有﹕

(一)香港華人基督教聯會,簡稱「華基聯」,是比較有代表性的
(二)香港基督教協進會,簡稱「基協」,和天主教、東正教有跨教派對話


《別異教派》

除了主流之外,有一些教派(Cults)名稱、術語,和基督教極為相似,比如常在街上傳道的一些外國人,身上佩有名牌,叫「耶穌基督後世聖徒教會」,俗稱「摩門教」 (Mormons),在「基督宗教」的三大主流角度看來,他們不是「正統」,而係「異端」(heresy)。他們因為沒有對社會造成破壞,所以我不把他們歸入為「邪教」(當然部份基督教會是不同意的)。

「異端」是在主要的基督教核心教義和三大主流基督宗教有分歧,而被列為「異端」。


《基督教(新教)》

由于新教在香港最活躍,也最大力傳福音﹐所以本文集中介紹。新教和天主教、東正教最大的不同在其形成的過程,它不斷分裂、不斷有新派出現,稱為宗派 (denominations)。有些小教會聲稱不屬任何宗派背景,稱為獨立教會(Free church)。經過多年社會洗禮,部份基督教會也和社會共融,處於一個相對和諧的狀態。 當然我不可以排除個別偏激信徒的流弊。


《極端基督教派》

另外,基督教裡面,也有一些被稱為「極端教會」的教派。他們在信仰上和三大主流基督宗教沒有分歧,但是在處理信徒、和社會關係、對待信徒的方法上面,有可能採用偏激的手法,引起信徒或者信徒家人的不安困擾。


《新教的誕生也是她今日問題的根源》

新教原本在十六世紀是因為宗教改革家路德反抗天主教教廷腐敗而產生的。路德為抗衡天主教的壟斷教義解釋,斷言宣稱信徒可以憑良心自由研究解釋聖經,結果是不同宗教改革家對聖經出現不同理解,在路德催生宗教改革的半個世紀,先後出現五個宗派。此後宗派、小派教會不斷出現,到今日,全球已經有二萬五千個基督教的宗派,個個都聲稱自己對聖經有正確解釋。所以新教被人譏笑為 multiply by dividing。

同一時間,異端也乘機產生。宗教改革的四百多年,產生了各式跟三大主流有嚴重分歧的別異教派。當中有比較溫和的,但是也產生過一些驚人害人的教派,例如占姆鐘斯(Jim Jones)的「人民廟堂」在圭亞那的集體自殺事件,「大衛支派」事件,荒淫的「天父的兒女」,俱為現代人追求信仰中的悲劇。

慶幸香港除了鬧上新聞得雙氧水教會外(編按﹕指梁日華的錫安教,曾鼓勵信徒飲用雙氧水)、天父的兒女,未聽聞更極端事件。


《基督教那麼多不同的教會,花多眼亂》

我相信每一個未認識基督教的朋友都有這個觀感。有一個偏激大牧聲稱這是宗教改革自由解聖經的結果,是將來大家「解經步伐方向會一致」,於是就不會分裂。不過歷史事實和這為大牧見解完全相反。

的確,基督教有很多不同的教會,就是返教會幾十年的信徒、牧師都未必數得清。隨便提一間獨立教會的名字,不是任何牧師都知道他們是什麼。如果未信的人被一個自稱基督徒的人傳福音,而那位未信的當事人如何知道自己不會返錯一間極端教會、別異教會?

首先,我作為基督教徒,我當然不希望人返了「異端」或者極端教會,但是我沒有權利替讀者作決定,唯一可以做的就是指出它們的分別,以及可以從那些地方得到資料。


《哪些是基督教公認的異端?》

基督教普遍認為以下是異端﹕

(一)「耶穌基督後世聖徒教會」,俗稱「摩門教」(Church of Christ of Latter day Saints﹐Mormons)
(二)耶和華見證人會(Jehovah's Witness)
(三)統一教(Unification Church)
(四)基督教科學會(Chrisitian Scientist)

若要更詳細的資料,可以查﹕cults.ceis.org,由羅錫為牧師主持。跟其他自稱的異端專家不同,羅牧判別教派是否正統非常謹慎,也盡力更新資料。例如美國的「上帝普世教會」(Worldwide Church of God)原本是異端,他對筆者分享,說下一版的書會更正資料。


《天主教、安息日會?》

這兩間教會的地位,在新教裡面是仍然有分歧的。立場保守的宗派仍然拒絕他們,視他們為異端,而部份和他們對話的宗派就接納他們。普遍認為它們信仰裡面有嚴重錯誤(in error),但是未至於是「異端」。對天主教,筆者認為基督教(編按﹕此處指新教)普遍流行的指責──特別出自七 、八十年代出版的基督教小冊子裡的,對天主教有很多不確實的指控。幸好現在雙方有對話增加了解。我認為天主教可以和新教視為一樣。

至於安息日會,在筆者角度看是屬于正面、觀察中,未可以確定,需要時間去認識和了解。


《其他教會呢?》

最困難是,獨立教會、宗派太多,起得快也走得快,根本沒有一個中央資料庫可以查,唯一保證自己不會誤入極端教會,只有這些途徑可以檢查──他們是否主要的基督教聯會的會員﹕

(一)香港華人基督教聯會,簡稱「華基聯」,是比較有代表性的
(二)香港基督教協進會,簡稱「基協」,和天主教、東正教有跨教派對話
(三)查看《香港教會名錄》
(四)香港教會網頁 www.hkchurch.org

因為極端教會通常以為自己是唯一得到神喜悅的教會,世界上其他教會是敗壞的,所以不屑和他們交往,因此也不肯參與這些教會聯合會。不過部份普通教會也不參加這些聯會,我給的指示只是一個初步的指引。


《什麼人特別容易中招?》

那些對宗教沒有特別熱誠、興趣的人,通常沒有事。往往是那些對宗教有熱誠、對人生有理想期望、特別希望找到人生意義的,有傾向會參加這些教會。他們會渴望有一個魅力形的宗教領袖可以追隨,以尋找自己的理想,結果往往感情蓋過理智。這種情況和文化大革命裡武鬥學生的狂熱很相似,帶有宗教烈士浪漫主義,幻想自己是被迫害,為一個高超的領導、神祗貢獻自己的青春。當他們完全投入後,是絕對不會聽外人的勸告或者指責,反而更加投入,並與把家人朋友疏離,將自己感情、生命投入去教會。外國研究指高中至大專的年青人最願意參加這些教會。

這些教會對外人敵視、疏離,但是內裡的關係非常親密溫暖,對於一些人際關係受過挫折的人,這些教會信徒給人的親密、溫暖是非常吸引的。當然之後他們如何對待意見相左的成員,是外人不知道的。


《留意要點》

留意他們對新人的行為態度﹕

(一)缺席聚會,例如小組、團契,他們反應如何?例如會不會問長問短,不顧你的私隱,把缺席當作大罪?

(二)他們會不會要求你出席很多不同教會聚會,甚至要求你放棄你好多你私人時間、甚至工作時間都要出席,而不顧你是否有能力、時間和願意?

(三)他們會不會告訴你不要看電影、電視,或者不要讀其他的書本刊物,而只讀他們給你的資料和書,封鎖資訊?

(四)當他們問你一些你覺得是私人的問題時你不想回答,他們會不會尊重你的意願,不再逼你答?還是他們會用各樣理由逼你講(例如引聖經、例如指你不夠忠心教會、不夠投入他們?)

(五)他們是否宣稱自己是唯一正統的教會,其他的都不好?

(六)他們是否禁止信徒轉返別的教會﹖

(七)當人離開教會,他們會否把人判死罪,聲稱對方沉淪、墮落等?(反晒面)

(八)他們有沒有和其他教會有聯合活動?

(九)他們有沒有干預你的社交、交朋結友?(例如不許你和未信基督教的人交往)

(十)他們有沒有極力灌輸所謂「被逼迫」的想法,說你家人阻止你返教會就是「逼迫」?

(十一)他們有沒有用聖經耶穌說「人的仇敵就是自己家裡的人。愛父母過於愛我的, 不配作我的門徒;愛兒女過於愛我的,不配作我的門徒……」去唆擺你和自己家人決裂?

(十二)極端教派有一個特色﹕長期沒有固定聚會地點,也不會在公開的教會名錄登記,永遠隱形。

如果有類似情況,那麼還是避之則吉了。


《如果我被基督教朋友邀請返教會呢﹖》

這條問題最難答。身為信徒我當然希望多些人返教會,但是我寧可你不返也不要誤去一些會傷害你的教會。避免不公平,也不可以阻止。

我可以建議和邀請你返教會的朋友約法三章,保護你自己的權益﹕

(一)無論你應承與否,要求你的基督徒朋友尊重你的自由和私隱,也要求他叫他教會的信徒同樣尊重你。

(二)你對你的基督徒朋友無需要有任何 commitment,你返一次或者幾多次,都不代表你須要以後都返、以後按他教會的時間表生活,你告訴你的基督徒朋友你隨時都有權quit。

(三)你可以選擇不把你個人聯絡電話給教會的人,也要求你朋友不要隨便透露你個人聯絡和資料,除非你自願提供,或者有你同意。就算同意也是給一些你認識的教會人士。

(四)要求你的基督徒朋友和他教會的信徒要尊重你家人,不可以作一些破壞你和你家人朋友的事情或者用說話審判他們。

(五)當你透露你個人私隱,你要求你的基督徒朋友守秘,如有泄露,那麼你也可以以後不返他教會。

(六)在聚會分享的時候,你有權保持沉默,任何弟兄姊妹用任何理由也不可以逼人分享,如果他們逼,你威脅他們以後不返教會。

你的基督徒朋友如果不答應,你別返他的教會。如果你的基督徒朋友或者是他教會違反諾言,你可以斷絕和他和那教會的交往。

我希望本文可以初步幫助一些未信的人。

http://www.horace.org/christianfaq/F07.htm
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