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http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp ... R2007052701056.html

Washington Post

If It Feels Good to Be Good, It Might Be Only Natural
by Shankar Vedantam, Washington Post

The e-mail came from the next room.

"You gotta see this!" Jorge Moll had written. Moll and Jordan Grafman, neuroscientists at the National Institutes of Health, had been scanning the brains of volunteers as they were asked to think about a scenario involving either donating a sum of money to charity or keeping it for themselves.

As Grafman read the e-mail, Moll came bursting in. The scientists stared at each other. Grafman was thinking, "Whoa -- wait a minute!"

The results were showing that when the volunteers placed the interests of others before their own, the generosity activated a primitive part of the brain that usually lights up in response to food or sex. Altruism, the experiment suggested, was not a superior moral faculty that suppresses basic selfish urges but rather was basic to the brain, hard-wired and pleasurable.

Their 2006 finding that unselfishness can feel good lends scientific support to the admonitions of spiritual leaders such as Saint Francis of Assisi, who said, "For it is in giving that we receive." But it is also a dramatic example of the way neuroscience has begun to elbow its way into discussions about morality and has opened up a new window on what it means to be good.

Grafman and others are using brain imaging and psychological experiments to study whether the brain has a built-in moral compass. The results -- many of them published just in recent months -- are showing, unexpectedly, that many aspects of morality appear to be hard-wired in the brain, most likely the result of evolutionary processes that began in other species.

No one can say whether giraffes and lions experience moral qualms in the same way people do because no one has been inside a giraffe's head, but it is known that animals can sacrifice their own interests: One experiment found that if each time a rat is given food, its neighbor receives an electric shock, the first rat will eventually forgo eating.

What the new research is showing is that morality has biological roots -- such as the reward center in the brain that lit up in Grafman's experiment -- that have been around for a very long time.

The more researchers learn, the more it appears that the foundation of morality is empathy. Being able to recognize -- even experience vicariously -- what another creature is going through was an important leap in the evolution of social behavior. And it is only a short step from this awareness to many human notions of right and wrong, says Jean Decety, a neuroscientist at the University of Chicago.

The research enterprise has been viewed with interest by philosophers and theologians, but already some worry that it raises troubling questions. Reducing morality and immorality to brain chemistry -- rather than free will -- might diminish the importance of personal responsibility. Even more important, some wonder whether the very idea of morality is somehow degraded if it turns out to be just another evolutionary tool that nature uses to help species survive and propagate.

Moral decisions can often feel like abstract intellectual challenges, but a number of experiments such as the one by Grafman have shown that emotions are central to moral thinking. In another experiment published in March, University of Southern California neuroscientist Antonio R. Damasio and his colleagues showed that patients with damage to an area of the brain known as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex lack the ability to feel their way to moral answers.

When confronted with moral dilemmas, the brain-damaged patients coldly came up with "end-justifies-the-means" answers. Damasio said the point was not that they reached immoral conclusions, but that when confronted by a difficult issue -- such as whether to shoot down a passenger plane hijacked by terrorists before it hits a major city -- these patients appear to reach decisions without the anguish that afflicts those with normally functioning brains.

Such experiments have two important implications. One is that morality is not merely about the decisions people reach but also about the process by which they get there. Another implication, said Adrian Raine, a clinical neuroscientist at the University of Southern California, is that society may have to rethink how it judges immoral people.

Psychopaths often feel no empathy or remorse. Without that awareness, people relying exclusively on reasoning seem to find it harder to sort their way through moral thickets. Does that mean they should be held to different standards of accountability?

"Eventually, you are bound to get into areas that for thousands of years we have preferred to keep mystical," said Grafman, the chief cognitive neuroscientist at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. "Some of the questions that are important are not just of intellectual interest, but challenging and frightening to the ways we ground our lives. We need to step very carefully."

Joshua D. Greene, a Harvard neuroscientist and philosopher, said multiple experiments suggest that morality arises from basic brain activities. Morality, he said, is not a brain function elevated above our baser impulses. Greene said it is not "handed down" by philosophers and clergy, but "handed up," an outgrowth of the brain's basic propensities.

Moral decision-making often involves competing brain networks vying for supremacy, he said. Simple moral decisions -- is killing a child right or wrong? -- are simple because they activate a straightforward brain response. Difficult moral decisions, by contrast, activate multiple brain regions that conflict with one another, he said.

In one 2004 brain-imaging experiment, Greene asked volunteers to imagine that they were hiding in a cellar of a village as enemy soldiers came looking to kill all the inhabitants. If a baby was crying in the cellar, Greene asked, was it right to smother the child to keep the soldiers from discovering the cellar and killing everyone?

The reason people are slow to answer such an awful question, the study indicated, is that emotion-linked circuits automatically signaling that killing a baby is wrong clash with areas of the brain that involve cooler aspects of cognition. One brain region activated when people process such difficult choices is the inferior parietal lobe, which has been shown to be active in more impersonal decision-making. This part of the brain, in essence, was "arguing" with brain networks that reacted with visceral horror.

Such studies point to a pattern, Greene said, showing "competing forces that may have come online at different points in our evolutionary history. A basic emotional response is probably much older than the ability to evaluate costs and benefits."

While one implication of such findings is that people with certain kinds of brain damage may do bad things they cannot be held responsible for, the new research could also expand the boundaries of moral responsibility. Neuroscience research, Greene said, is finally explaining a problem that has long troubled philosophers and moral teachers: Why is it that people who are willing to help someone in front of them will ignore abstract pleas for help from those who are distant, such as a request for a charitable contribution that could save the life of a child overseas?

"We evolved in a world where people in trouble right in front of you existed, so our emotions were tuned to them, whereas we didn't face the other kind of situation," Greene said. "It is comforting to think your moral intuitions are reliable and you can trust them. But if my analysis is right, your intuitions are not trustworthy. Once you realize why you have the intuitions you have, it puts a burden on you" to think about morality differently.

Marc Hauser, another Harvard researcher, has used cleverly designed psychological experiments to study morality. He said his research has found that people all over the world process moral questions in the same way, suggesting that moral thinking is intrinsic to the human brain, rather than a product of culture. It may be useful to think about morality much like language, in that its basic features are hard-wired, Hauser said. Different cultures and religions build on that framework in much the way children in different cultures learn different languages using the same neural machinery.

Hauser said that if his theory is right, there should be aspects of morality that are automatic and unconscious -- just like language. People would reach moral conclusions in the same way they construct a sentence without having been trained in linguistics. Hauser said the idea could shed light on contradictions in common moral stances.

U.S. law, for example, distinguishes between a physician who removes a feeding tube from a terminally ill patient and a physician who administers a drug to kill the patient.

Hauser said the only difference is that the second scenario is more emotionally charged -- and therefore feels like a different moral problem, when it really is not: "In the end, the doctor's intent is to reduce suffering, and that is as true in active as in passive euthanasia, and either way the patient is dead."

[ 本帖最後由 dye 於 2007-6-1 10:43 編輯 ]
隔離有人將報章中譯英給對照... 唔該Dye兄英譯中丫...

小則潤澤生活, 大則啟生之道
Paul 版友用這個吧,以後不必求人。

回復 #3 龍井樹 的帖子

小則潤澤生活, 大則啟生之道

19:32        Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.
19:33        And they made their father drink wine that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.
19:34        And it came to pass on the morrow, that the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yesternight with my father: let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.
19:35        And they made their father drink wine that night also: and the younger arose, and lay with him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.
19:36        Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father.
19:37        And the first born bare a son, and called his name Moab: the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day.
19:38        And the younger, she also bare a son, and called his name Benammi: the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day.

19:32 來, 讓我們使我們的父親喝酒, 並且我們將說謊與他, 我們也許保存我們的父親種子。
19:33 和他們使他們的父親喝夜的酒: 並且firstborn 參加了, 和位置與她的父親; 並且他察覺不是她放下, 亦不她升起了。
19:34 和它來傳遞次日, 那firstborn 說更加年輕, 注視, 我放置yesternight 與我的父親: 讓我們並且做他飲料酒這夜; 並且是thou, 和說謊與他, 我們也許保存我們的父親種子。
19:35 和他們使他們的父親並且喝酒那夜: 並且更加年輕升起了, 和位置與他; 並且他察覺不是她放下, 亦不她升起了。
19:36 因而是全部的兩個女兒與孩子由他們的父親。
19:37 和頭生露出兒子, 和叫他的命名Moab: 同樣是Moabites 的父親這天。
19:38 和更加年輕, 她並且露出兒子, 和叫他的命名Benammi: 同樣是Ammon 的孩子的父親這天。
de omnibus dubitandum

回復 #5 沙文 的帖子


回復 #6 龍井樹 的帖子

似乎是不錯的工具, 因為見過同類型的翻譯工具譯得更不濟~

[ 本帖最後由 Paul 於 2007-6-1 17:10 編輯 ]
小則潤澤生活, 大則啟生之道

回復 #7 Paul 的帖子


你覺得 doctor eye 又如何?

回復 #8 龍井樹 的帖子

沒有, Dr. Eye 都係用字典果part...  

所以我期望緊Dr. Dye 會幫我譯埋law...
小則潤澤生活, 大則啟生之道

回復 #9 Paul 的帖子

The actual report the reporter is talking about.

原帖由 dye 於 2007-5-31 18:38 發表
animals can sacrifice their own interests: One experiment found that if each time a rat is given food, its neighbor receives an electric shock,the first rat will eventually forgo eating.
以前白居易發現鳥類亦有孝道:慈烏復慈烏   鳥中之曾參

de omnibus dubitandum

回復 #12 沙文 的帖子

I think bonobo is probably capable of "稱地上的人為父".  The unfortunate thing is that their human teacher is a women.  I suppose she might be called "Mother" in secret.

I mean, bonobo can even play Pac Man intelligently (Besides having an intelligent conversation, lighting fire, etc)...  Calling folks father is only a minor feat.


[ 本帖最後由 dye 於 2007-6-2 11:05 編輯 ]
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