現下麥道衛認為這指的是推羅的主城或者母城。但是他完全弄反了﹗推羅的主城實際上在島嶼要塞上，所謂陸城的部分是我們今天所稱的市郊。我們怎麼知道？因為正文如此告訴我們。它說︰「He will slay your daughters on the mainland......」古代的城市會把分出去的殖民地稱為「兒子」或者「女兒」，取決于居民是否有血緣關係還是單純的同盟。這樣看來在大陸上的推羅人是同盟者，因此被稱為「女兒」，以西結書的預言和麥道衛想表示的恰好相反！
Tyre (Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Ṣur, Hebrew צור Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew צר Ṣōr, Akkadian Ṣurru, Greek Τύρος Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. With 117,100 inhabitants, Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, about 23 miles north of Acre, and 20 miles south of Sidon. The name of the city means "rock" . The adjective for Tyre is Tyrian, and the inhabitants are Tyrians.
Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city. Today it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon  and houses one of the nation's major ports. Tyre is a popular destination for tourists. The city has many ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome which was was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1979 (Resolution 459).
"The location of the city of Tyre is not in doubt, for it exists to this day on the same spot and is known as Sur." (Katzenstein, H.J., The History of Tyre, 1973, p9) Tyre originally consisted of two distinct urban centers, one on an island and the other on the adjacent coast (approximately 30 stadia apart or 3.5 miles according to Strabo in his Geography xvi, 2), before Alexander the Great connected the island to the coast during his siege of the city. One was a heavily fortified island city amidst the sea (with defensive walls 150 feet high) and the latter, originally called Ushu (later, Palaetyrus, by the Greeks) was actually more like a line of suburbs than any one city and was used primarily as a source of water and timber for the main island city.......(下略，url：http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyre,_Lebanon)
TYRE (Phoen. and Hebr. ="rock," Assyr. Surru, Egypt. Dara, Early Lat. Sarra), the most famous city of Phoenicia. It is now represented by the petty town of Sur (about 5,000 inhabitants), built round the harbour at the north end of a peninsula, which till the time of Alexander's siege was an island, without water or vegetation. The mole which he constructed has been widened by deposits of sand, so that the ancient island is now connected with the mainland by a tongue of land a quarter of a mile broad.
In their wailing they raise a lamentation for you, and lament over you: ‘Who was ever destroyed like Tyre in the midst of the sea?（Ezek. 27:32, NRSV）
==================================================== 2006-11-15 09:48:34 司馬駕神
In the correspondence from El Amarna, Tyre is described for the first time as a monarchy, enjoying prestige and political influence. The establishment at this date of a great satellite city on the mainland - Ushu or Palaeotyre - no doubt reflects a demographic highpoint in that Canaanite state, even though its king, Abi-Milki, is already alluding in his letters to a certain political crisis in the interior of his territory and to a situation of generalized insurrection in the Syrian cities, in the face of the apparant in difference, if not impotence, of Egypt. (The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies, and Trade, Second Edition, by Maria Eugenia Aubet, translated by Mary Turton, Cambridge University Press, p.23)
In antiquity, Tyre was an island 'in the midst of the sea' (Ezekiel 27:32). Legend talls that the city was founded on two rocks joined together by the roots of a sacred olive tree. According to Tyrian sources, Hiram I joined the two original islands in order to enlarge the city. (Ibid., p.34)
For much of the 18th and 7th centuries the town was subject to Assyria, and in 585-573 it successfully withstood a prolonged siege by the Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar II......Alexander's causeway, which was never removed, converted the island into a peninsula.(The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol 12, 2003, p. 91)
The silted up harbour on the south side of the peninsula has been excavated by the French Institute for Archaeology in the Near East, but the most of the remains of the Phoenician period still lie beneath the present town. Pop. (1982 est.) 23,000. (Ibid., p.92)
Sea Peoples and the Phoenicians
by Sanford Holst http://www.phoenician.org/sea_peoples.htm
Tyre was one of the leading Phoenician cities in 1200 B.C., and we are fortunate to have an excellent archaeological study of this site which went all the way down to bedrock. Performed by Patricia Bikai in 1973, this work documented clearly the relevant layers of interest to us.[vii] They not only show there was no widespread destruction at that time but that there was great continuity from layer to layer, indicating that the local society continued to live in the same way throughout this period. The results are highly conclusive.
關於上文的作者 Sanford Holst： http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanford_Holst
Sanford Holst (b. 1946) is an historian who specializes in world history and particularly the ancient Mediterranean. His most significant work is on the Phoenicians, whom he has studied for thirty years. He is the author of Phoenicians: Lebanon's Epic Heritage (2005) which is an extensive history of these people and their society. He also has written academic papers on the ancient Mediterranean.
==================================================== 2006-11-14 12:36:00 sowhat2002
經文所說的推羅是海島：26:5 她必在海中（in the midst of the sea - RSV）作曬網的地方……27:4 你的境界在海中……（Your borders are in the heart of the seas......） Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15109a.htm)：On the other hand, it is impossible to state which of the two cities, Palaetyrus, on the sea-coast, or Tyrus, built on a rocky island 1968 feet above the sea, existed first. It is generally held, however, that the continental preceded the insular city. The reference in Josue (xix, 29) is not exactly identified, but in the El-Amarna Letters the island is referred to, unless the Egyptians who occupied all the seaboard cities had not subjected it also to their dominion. 續推羅是海島：In an inscription from Assur, Asarhaddon declares:‘I captured Tyre which is in the midst of the sea....’
 ARAB, II 710; IAKA, 57.
(Sabatino Moscati, translated by Alastair Hamilton, The World of the Phoenicians, English paperback edition, 1999, p.21) 同書另一段：Under Assurbanipal (668-626), Baal of Tyre rebelled again:In my third campaign I marched against Baal, king of Tyre, who dwells in the midst of the sea, when he did not observe my royal command and did not obey the word of my lips. I threw up earthworks against him, by sea and land I seized his approaches.....
ARAB, II, 779
(p.22)ARAB = D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 2 vols (Chicago, 1926-7);
IAKA = R. Borger, Die Inschriften Asarhaddons Koenigs von Assyrien, (Graz, 1956) 西頓港（推羅的北港）自古已存在：The chronology and physical configuration of Tyre's two harbours has been the subject of much debate. The Northern ('Sidonian') port, the earlier of the two, functioned as the sole harbour facility in Hiram's own day. The southern ('Egyptian') was constructed at a later day; it development is traditionally ascribed to the King Ithobaal I (887-856 BC). (Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians by Glenn Markoe, British Museum Press, p.198) 以下照片是從北向南攝影，西頓港就在照片下部，無論如何，該港都是在市區：http://www.freethought-forum.com/images/sauron/tyre1.jpghttp://www.freethought-forum.com/images/sauron/tyre2.jpg" border="0"> 被尼布甲尼撒圍困 13 年的是「環水推羅」：The neo-Babylonian conqueror, Nebuchadnezzar II, subjected the island to a 13-year siege (585-572) without success. (The Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. 27, 1984, p. 331) 被尼布甲尼撒圍困 13 年的是「環水推羅」（續）：Around 585 BC, Nebuchadnezzar undertook his famous 13-year siege of Tyre, which had apparently resisted his advances in the previous campaign. This long operation - in reality, a land blockade of the island city - should be understood as a strategem of containment rather than as a continuous, concerted attack. (Such an interpretation may explain why the event receives no mention in the official Babylonian Chronicles.) (Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians by Glenn Markoe, British Museum Press, p.48)
==================================================== 2006-11-12 20:03:16 魔鬼的辯護律師