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- from The Works of Robert Green Ingersoll(羅拔‧英格素) Vol IV

When I became convinced that the universe is natural — that all the ghosts and gods are myths, there entered into my brain, into my soul, into every drop of my blood, the sense, the feeling, the joy of freedom.

The walls of my prison crumbled and fell, the dungeon was flooded with light and all the bolts and bars and manacles became dust. I was no longer a servant, a serf or a slave. There was for me no master in all the world — not even infinite space.

I was free:

* Free to think, to express my thoughts
* 自由地去思想,去表達我的意念
* Free to live my own ideal
* 自由地按着我的理想生活
* Fee to live for myself and those I loved
* 自由地為我和我所愛的人而活
* Free to use all my faculties, all my senses
* 自由地去使用我所有心智和感覺
* Free to spread imagination’s wings
* 自由地去伸展那想像力的翅膀
* Free to investigate, to guess and dream and hope
* 自由地去查考,估量,夢想和盼望
* Free to judge and determine for myself
* 自由地自已去衡量和决定
* Free to reject all ignorant and cruel creeds, all the “inspired” books that savages have produced, and all the barbarous legends of the past
* 自由地去拒絕所有無知殘酷的信條,所有由野蠻人「神靈感動」而出的經書,和所有未開化之人的傳說
* Free from popes and priests
* 自由地去遠離那些教宗和神父
* Free from all the “called” and “set apart”
* 自由地去遠離那些「蒙呼召」和「被揀選」的人
* Free from sanctified mistakes and “holy” lies
* 自由地去遠離那些「神聖」的謬誤和謊話
* Free from the winged monsters of the night
* 自由地掙脫那夜裏長有翅膀的惡魔
* Free from devils, ghosts and gods
* 自由地掙脫那些妖魔,鬼怪,和神

For the first time I was free. There were no prohibited places in all the realms of thought — no air, no space, where fancy could not spread her painted wings; no claims for my limbs; no lashes for my back; no fires for my flesh; no following another’s steps; no need to bow, or cringe, or crawl, or utter lying words. I was free. I stood erect and fearlessly, joyously, faced all worlds.

And then my heart was filled with gratitude, with thankfulness, and went out in love:

* To all the heroes, the thinkers, who gave their lives for the liberty of hand and brain
* 那些為解放身體和思想而捐軀的英雄和哲人
* For the freedom of labor and thought
* 那自由地奮鬥和思想的理念
* To those who fell on the fierce fields of war
* 那些在惨烈的戰場上倒下的人
* To those who died in dungeons bound with chains
* 那些被奴役而綑縛在牢獄死去的人
* To those who proudly mounted scaffold’s stairs
* 那些因着傲骨而不畏艱辛的人
* To those by fire consumed
* 那些被烈火所吞噬的人
* To all the wise, the good, the brave of every land, whose thoughts and deeds have given freedom to the sons and daughters of men and women
* 那些在五湖四海有着智慧,善良,勇敢的人,因為他們的思想和努力令到我們的孩子得到自由和釋放。

And then I vowed to grasp the torch that they have held, and hold it high, that light may conquer darkness still.

有沒有宗教,好人都會做好事, 壞人都會做壞事。但要好人做壞事, 那需要宗教。-- 史蒂文·溫伯格(Steven Weinberg)
送給在美國過感恩節的朋友們 -- 之二 ‧對於感恩節的紅番史觀

        T E A C H I N G   A B O U T   T H A N K S G I V I N G

                        Dr. Frank B. Brouillet
                 Superintendent of Public Instruction
                         State of Washington

                             Cheryl Chow
                       Assistant Superintendent
           Division of Instructional Programs and Services

                           Warren H. Burton
            Office for Multicultural and Equity Education

                         Dr. Willard E. Bill
                    Supervisor of Indian Education

                 Originally written and developed by
     Cathy Ross, Mary Robertson, Chuck Larsen, and Roger Fernandes
              Indian Education, Highline School District

                       With an introduction by:
                             Chuck Larsen
                        Tacoma School District

                       Printed: September, 1986

                         Reprinted: May, 1987


          This is a particularly difficult introduction to
     write. I have been a public schools teacher for twelve
     years, and I am also a historian and have written several
     books on American and Native American history. I also just
     happen to be Quebeque French, Metis, Ojibwa, and Iroquois.
     Because my Indian ancestors were on both sides of the
     struggle between the Puritans and the New England Indians
     and I am well versed in my cultural heritage and history
     both as an Anishnabeg (Algokin) and Hodenosione (Iroquois),
     it was felt that I could bring a unique insight to the

          For an Indian, who is also a school teacher,
     Thanksgiving was never an easy holiday for me to deal with
     in class. I sometimes have felt like I learned too much
     about "the Pilgrims and the Indians." Every year I have
     been faced with the professional and moral dilemma of just
     how to be honest and informative with my children at
     Thanksgiving without passing on historical distortions, and
     racial and cultural stereotypes.

          The problem is that part of what you and I learned in
     our own childhood about the "Pilgrims" and "Squanto" and
     the "First Thanksgiving" is a mixture of both history and
     myth. But the THEME of Thanksgiving has truth and integrity
     far above and beyond what we and our forebearers have made
     of it. Thanksgiving is a bigger concept than just the story
     of the founding of the Plymouth Plantation.

          So what do we teach to our children? We usually pass
     on unquestioned what we all received in our own childhood
     classrooms. I have come to know both the truths and the
     myths about our "First Thanksgiving," and I feel we need to
     try to reach beyond the myths to some degree of historic
     truth. This text is an attempt to do this.

          At this point you are probably asking, "What is the
     big deal about Thanksgiving and the Pilgrims?" "What does
     this guy mean by a mixture of truths and myth?" That is
     just what this introduction is all about. I propose that
     there may be a good deal that many of us do not know about
     our Thanksgiving holiday and also about the "First
     Thanksgiving" story. I also propose that what most of us
     have learned about the Pilgrims and the Indians who were at
     the first Thanksgiving at Plymouth Plantation is only part
     of the truth. When you build a lesson on only half of the
     information, then you are not teaching the whole truth.
     That is why I used the word myth. So where do you start to
     find out more about the holiday and our modern stories
     about how it began?

          A good place to start is with a very important book,
     "The Invasion of America," by Francis Jennings. It is a
     very authoritative text on the settlement of New England
     and the evolution of Indian/White relations in the New
     England colonies. I also recommend looking up any good text
     on British history. Check out the British Civil War of
     1621-1642, Oliver Cromwell, and the Puritan uprising of
     1653 which ended parliamentary government in England until
     1660. The history of the Puritan experience in New England
     really should not be separated from the history of the
     Puritan experience in England. You should also realize that
     the "Pilgrims" were a sub sect, or splinter group, of the
     Puritan movement. They came to America to achieve on this
     continent what their Puritan bretheran continued to strive
     for in England; and when the Puritans were forced from
     England, they came to New England and soon absorbed the
     original "Pilgrims."

          As the editor, I have read all the texts listed in our
     bibliography, and many more, in preparing this material for
     you. I want you to read some of these books. So let me use
     my editorial license to deliberately provoke you a little.
     When comparing the events stirred on by the Puritans in
     England with accounts of Puritan/Pilgrim activities in New
     England in the same era, several provocative things suggest

     1. The Puritans were not just simple religious
        conservatives persecuted by the King and the Church of
        England for their unorthodox beliefs. They were
        political revolutionaries who not only intended to
        overthrow the government of England, but who actually
        did so in 1649.                                       

     2. The Puritan "Pilgrims" who came to New England were not
        simply refugees who decided to "put their fate in God's
        hands" in the "empty wilderness" of North America, as a
        generation of Hollywood movies taught us. In any culture
        at any time, settlers on a frontier are most often
        outcasts and fugitives who, in some way or other, do not
        fit into the mainstream of their society. This is not to
        imply that people who settle on frontiers have no
        redeeming qualities such as bravery, etc., but that the
        images of nobility that we associate with the Puritans
        are at least in part the good "P.R." efforts of later
        writers who have romanticized them.(1) It is also very
        plausible that this unnaturally noble image of the
        Puritans is all wrapped up with the mythology of "Noble
        Civilization" vs. "Savagery."(2) At any rate, mainstream
        Englishmen considered the Pilgrims to be deliberate
        religious dropouts who intended to found a new nation
        completely independent from non-Puritan England. In 1643
        the Puritan/Pilgrims declared themselves an independent
        confederacy, one hundred and forty-three years before
        the American Revolution. They believed in the imminent
        occurrence of Armegeddon in Europe and hoped to
        establish here in the new world the "Kingdom of God"
        foretold in the book of Revelation. They diverged from
        their Puritan brethren who remained in England only in
        that they held little real hope of ever being able to
        successfully overthrow the King and Parliament and,
        thereby, impose their "Rule of Saints" (strict Puritan
        orthodoxy) on the rest of the British people. So they
        came to America not just in one ship (the Mayflower) but
        in a hundred others as well, with every intention of
        taking the land away from its native people to build
        their prophesied "Holy Kingdom."(3)

     3. The Pilgrims were not just innocent refugees from
        religious persecution. They were victims of bigotry in
        England, but some of them were themselves religious
        bigots by our modern standards. The Puritans and the
        Pilgrims saw themselves as the "Chosen Elect" mentioned
        in the book of Revelation. They strove to "purify" first
        themselves and then everyone else of everything they did
        not accept in their own interpretation of scripture.
        Later New England Puritans used any means, including
        deceptions, treachery, torture, war, and genocide to
        achieve that end.(4) They saw themselves as fighting a
        holy war against Satan, and everyone who disagreed with
        them was the enemy. This rigid fundamentalism was
        transmitted to America by the Plymouth colonists, and it
        sheds a very different light on the "Pilgrim" image we
        have of them. This is best illustrated in the written
        text of the Thanksgiving sermon delivered at Plymouth in
        1623 by "Mather the Elder." In it, Mather the Elder gave
        special thanks to God for the devastating plague of
        smallpox which wiped out the majority of the Wampanoag
        Indians who had been their benefactors. He praised God
        for destroying "chiefly young men and children, the very
        seeds of increase, thus clearing the forests to make way
        for a better growth", i.e., the Pilgrims.(5) In as much
        as these Indians were the Pilgrim's benefactors, and
        Squanto, in particular, was the instrument of their
        salvation that first year, how are we to interpret this
        apparent callousness towards their misfortune?

     4. The Wampanoag Indians were not the "friendly savages"
        some of us were told about when we were in the primary
        grades. Nor were they invited out of the goodness of the
        Pilgrims' hearts to share the fruits of the Pilgrims'
        harvest in a demonstration of Christian charity and
        interracial brotherhood. The Wampanoag were members of a
        widespread confederacy of Algonkian-speaking peoples
        known as the League of the Delaware. For six hundred
        years they had been defending themselves from my other
        ancestors, the Iroquois, and for the last hundred years
        they had also had encounters with European fishermen and
        explorers but especially with European slavers, who had
        been raiding their coastal villages.(6) They knew
        something of the power of the white people, and they did
        not fully trust them. But their religion taught that
        they were to give charity to the helpless and
        hospitality to anyone who came to them with empty
        hands.(7) Also, Squanto, the Indian hero of the
        Thanksgiving story, had a very real love for a British
        explorer named John Weymouth, who had become a second
        father to him several years before the Pilgrims arrived
        at Plymouth. Clearly, Squanto saw these Pilgrims as
        Weymouth's people.(8) To the Pilgrims the Indians were
        heathens and, therefore, the natural instruments of the
        Devil. Squanto, as the only educated and baptized
        Christian among the Wampanoag, was seen as merely an
        instrument of God, set in the wilderness to provide for
        the survival of His chosen people, the Pilgrims. The
        Indians were comparatively powerful and, therefore,
        dangerous; and they were to be courted until the next
        ships arrived with more Pilgrim colonists and the
        balance of power shifted. The Wampanoag were actually
        invited to that Thanksgiving feast for the purpose of
        negotiating a treaty that would secure the lands of the
        Plymouth Plantation for the Pilgrims. It should also be
        noted that the INDIANS, possibly out of a sense of
        charity toward their hosts, ended up bringing the
        majority of the food for the feast.(9)

     5. A generation later, after the balance of power had
        indeed shifted, the Indian and White children of that
        Thanksgiving were striving to kill each other in the
        genocidal conflict known as King Philip's War. At the
        end of that conflict most of the New England Indians
        were either exterminated or refugees among the French in
        Canada, or they were sold into slavery in the Carolinas
        by the Puritans. So successful was this early trade in
        Indian slaves that several Puritan ship owners in Boston
        began the practice of raiding the Ivory Coast of Africa
        for black slaves to sell to the proprietary colonies of
        the South, thus founding the American-based slave

          Obviously there is a lot more to the story of
     Indian/Puritan relations in New England than in the
     thanksgiving stories we heard as children. Our contemporary
     mix of myth and history about the "First" Thanksgiving at
     Plymouth developed in the 1890s and early 1900s. Our
     country was desperately trying to pull together its many
     diverse peoples into a common national identity. To many
     writers and educators at the end of the last century and
     the beginning of this one, this also meant having a common
     national history. This was the era of the "melting pot"
     theory of social progress, and public education was a major
     tool for social unity. It was with this in mind that the
     federal government declared the last Thursday in November
     as the legal holiday of Thanksgiving in 1898.

          In consequence, what started as an inspirational bit
     of New England folklore, soon grew into the full-fledged
     American Thanksgiving we now know. It emerged complete with
     stereotyped Indians and stereotyped Whites, incomplete
     history, and a mythical significance as our "First
     Thanksgiving." But was it really our FIRST American

          Now that I have deliberately provoked you with some
     new information and different opinions, please take the
     time to read some of the texts in our bibliography. I want
     to encourage you to read further and form your own
     opinions. There really is a TRUE Thanksgiving story of
     Plymouth Plantation. But I strongly suggest that there
     always has been a Thanksgiving story of some kind or other
     for as long as there have been human beings. There was also
     a "First" Thanksgiving in America, but it was celebrated
     thirty thousand years ago.(11) At some time during the New
     Stone Age (beginning about ten thousand years ago)
     Thanksgiving became associated with giving thanks to God
     for the harvests of the land. Thanksgiving has always been
     a time of people coming together, so thanks has also been
     offered for that gift of fellowship between us all. Every
     last Thursday in November we now partake in one of the
     OLDEST and most UNIVERSAL of human celebrations, and THERE

          As for Thanksgiving week at Plymouth Plantation in
     1621, the friendship was guarded and not always sincere,
     and the peace was very soon abused. But for three days in
     New England's history, peace and friendship were there.

          So here is a story for your children. It is as kind
     and gentle a balance of historic truth and positive
     inspiration as its writers and this editor can make it out
     to be. I hope it will adequately serve its purpose both for
     you and your students, and I also hope this work will
     encourage you to look both deeper and farther, for
     Thanksgiving is Thanksgiving all around the world.

     Chuck Larsen
     Tacoma Public Schools
     September, 1986


          (1)  See Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's
     Indian," references to Puritans, pp. 27, 80-85, 90, 104, &

          (2)  See Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's
     Indian," references to frontier concepts of savagery in
     index. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of
     America," the myth of savagery, pp. 6-12, 15-16, & 109-110.

          (3) See Blitzer, Charles, "Age of Kings," Great Ages
     of Man series, references to Puritanism, pp. 141, 144 &
     145-46. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of
     America," references to Puritan human motives, pp. 4-6, 43-
     44 and 53.

          (4) See "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," pp.
     6-10. Also see Armstrong, Virginia I., "I Have Spoken,"
     reference to Cannonchet and his village, p. 6. Also see
     Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," Chapter 9
     "Savage War," Chapter 13 "We must Burn Them," and Chapter
     17 "Outrage Bloody and Barbarous."

          (5) See "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," pp.
     6-9. Also see Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's
     Indian," the comments of Cotton Mather, pp. 37 & 82-83.

          (6) See Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving,"
     pp. 3-4. Also see Graff, Steward and Polly Ann, "Squanto,
     Indian Adventurer." Also see "Handbook of North American
     Indians," Vol. 15, the reference to Squanto on p. 82.

          (7) See Benton-Banai, Edward, "The Mishomis Book," as
     a reference on general "Anishinabe" (the Algonkin speaking
     peoples) religious beliefs and practices. Also see Larsen,
     Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," reference to religious
     life on p. 1.

          (8) See Graff, Stewart and Polly Ann, "Squanto, Indian
     Adventurer." Also see Larsen, Charles M., "The Real
     Thanksgiving." Also see Bradford, Sir William, "Of Plymouth
     Plantation," and "Mourt's Relation."

          (9) See Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving,"
     the letter of Edward Winslow dated 1622, pp. 5-6.

          (10) See "Handbook of North American Indians," Vol.
     15, pp. 177-78. Also see "Chronicles of American Indian
     Protest," p. 9, the reference to the enslavement of King
     Philip's family. Also see Larsen, Charles, M., "The Real
     Thanksgiving," pp. 8-11, "Destruction of the Massachusetts

          (11) Best current estimate of the first entry of
     people into the Americas confirmed by archaeological
     evidence that is datable.


     15675 Ambaum Boulevard S.W. Telephone 206/433-0111
     Seattle, Washingt**8166

     November 13, 1985

     Dear Colleague:

     As educators, we continually strive to improve the clarity
     and accuracy of what is taught about the history of our
     country. Too often, we have presented what is considered to
     be a traditional mono-cultural perspective of history to
     our students. Our celebrations and observances have borne
     this out. We are, however, becoming increasingly aware of
     the need for greater cultural accuracy in historical
     studies. This is consistent with the State Superintendent
     of Public Instruction's commitment to multi-cultural
     education for all students.

     With this in mind, the Highline Indian Education program
     designed these instructional materials last year to be used
     in teaching about Thanksgiving in grades K-6. The response
     to these materials has been very positive and we are happy
     to have the opportunity to share them with districts in the
     state. We trust that you will find them to be a valuable
     addition to your instructional resources.

     Dr. Kent Matheson

     Dr. Bill McCleary
     Assistant Superintendent, Curriculum and Instruction

          The Thanksgiving holiday season is a time when Indian
     history and culture are frequently discussed in the
     schools. Unfortunately, the information and materials
     available to teachers are often incomplete or stereotyped
     in their presentation. For example, some commercially-
     produced bulletin board posters depict Plains-style Indians
     with feather warbonnets, tipis in the background, and
     horses tied nearby, sitting down to dinner with the
     Pilgrims. While these images are popular, they do not
     accurately represent the unique culture of the New England
     tribes, whose lifestyle was quite different than that of
     the Plains Indian stereotype. In addition, some books make
     brief mention of the critical assistance given by the
     Indians to the Pilgrims and tend to leave readers with the
     mistaken impression that all participants at the
     Thanksgiving feast remained friends for many years to come.

          This unit provides additional information about the
     Indians of the North-east culture area where the first
     Thanksgiving took place. It includes art projects and other
     activities teachers can use for expanding and enriching
     their instruction. It is hoped that these materials will
     enable teachers to better portray the events surrounding
     the first Thanksgiving.

     -- Cathy Ross, Mary Robertson and Roger Fernandes


          When the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic Ocean in 1620,
     they landed on the rocky shores of a territory that was
     inhabited by the Wampanoag (Wam pa NO ag) Indians. The
     Wampanoags were part of the Algonkian-speaking peoples, a
     large group that was part of the Woodland Culture area.
     These Indians lived in villages along the coast of what is
     now Massachusetts and Rhode Island. They lived in round-
     roofed houses called wigwams. These were made of poles
     covered with flat sheets of elm or birch bark. Wigwams
     differ in construction from tipis that were used by Indians
     of the Great Plains.

          The Wampanoags moved several times during each year in
     order to get food. In the spring they would fish in the
     rivers for salmon and herring. In the planting season they
     moved to the forest to hunt deer and other animals. After
     the end of the hunting season people moved inland where
     there was greater protection from the weather. From
     December to April they lived on food that they stored
     during the earlier months.

          The basic dress for men was the breech clout, a length
     of deerskin looped over a belt in back and in front. Women
     wore deerskin wrap-around skirts. Deerskin leggings and fur
     capes made from deer, beaver, otter, and bear skins gave
     protection during the colder seasons, and deerskin
     moccasins were worn on the feet. Both men and women usually
     braided their hair and a single feather was often worn in
     the back of the hair by men. They did not have the large
     feathered headdresses worn by people in the Plains Culture

          There were two language groups of Indians in New
     England at this time. The Iroquois were neighbors to the
     Algonkian-speaking people. Leaders of the Algonquin and
     Iroquois people were called "sachems" (SAY chems). Each
     village had its own sachem and tribal council. Political
     power flowed upward from the people. Any individual, man or
     woman, could participate, but among the Algonquins more
     political power was held by men. Among the Iroquois,
     however, women held the deciding vote in the final
     selection of who would represent the group. Both men and
     women enforced the laws of the village and helped solve
     problems. The details of their democratic system were so
     impressive that about 150 years later Benjamin Franklin
     invited the Iroquois to Albany, New York, to explain their
     system to a delegation who then developed the "Albany Plan
     of Union." This document later served as a model for the
     Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of the
     United States.

          These Indians of the Eastern Woodlands called the
     turtle, the deer and the fish their brothers. They
     respected the forest and everything in it as equals.
     Whenever a hunter made a kill, he was careful to leave
     behind some bones or meat as a spiritual offering, to help
     other animals survive. Not to do so would be considered
     greedy. The Wampanoags also treated each other with
     respect. Any visitor to a Wampanoag home was provided with
     a share of whatever food the family had, even if the supply
     was low. This same courtesy was extended to the Pilgrims
     when they met.

          We can only guess what the Wampanoags must have
     thought when they first saw the strange ships of the
     Pilgrims arriving on their shores. But their custom was to
     help visitors, and they treated the newcomers with
     courtesy. It was mainly because of their kindness that the
     Pilgrims survived at all. The wheat the Pilgrims had
     brought with them to plant would not grow in the rocky
     soil. They needed to learn new ways for a new world, and
     the man who came to help them was called "Tisquantum" (Tis
     SKWAN tum) or "Squanto" (SKWAN toe).

          Squanto was originally from the village of Patuxet (Pa
     TUK et) and a member of the Pokanokit Wampanoag nation.
     Patuxet once stood on the exact site where the Pilgrims
     built Plymouth. In 1605, fifteen years before the Pilgrims
     came, Squanto went to England with a friendly English
     explorer named John Weymouth. He had many adventures and
     learned to speak English. Squanto came back to New England
     with Captain Weymouth. Later Squanto was captured by a
     British slaver who raided the village and sold Squanto to
     the Spanish in the Caribbean Islands. A Spanish Franciscan
     priest befriended Squanto and helped him to get to Spain
     and later on a ship to England. Squanto then found Captain
     Weymouth, who paid his way back to his homeland. In England
     Squanto met Samoset of the Wabanake (Wab NAH key) Tribe,
     who had also left his native home with an English explorer.
     They both returned together to Patuxet in 1620. When they
     arrived, the village was deserted and there were skeletons
     everywhere. Everyone in the village had died from an
     illness the English slavers had left behind. Squanto and
     Samoset went to stay with a neighboring village of

          One year later, in the spring, Squanto and Samoset
     were hunting along the beach near Patuxet. They were
     startled to see people from England in their deserted
     village. For several days, they stayed nearby observing the
     newcomers. Finally they decided to approach them. Samoset
     walked into the village and said "welcome," Squanto soon
     joined him. The Pilgrims were very surprised to meet two
     Indians who spoke English.

          The Pilgrims were not in good condition. They were
     living in dirt-covered shelters, there was a shortage of
     food, and nearly half of them had died during the winter.
     They obviously needed help and the two men were a welcome
     sight. Squanto, who probably knew more English than any
     other Indian in North America at that time, decided to stay
     with the Pilgrims for the next few months and teach them
     how to survive in this new place. He brought them deer meat
     and beaver skins. He taught them how to cultivate corn and
     other new vegetables and how to build Indian-style houses.
     He pointed out poisonous plants and showed how other plants
     could be used as medicine. He explained how to dig and cook
     clams, how to get sap from the maple trees, use fish for
     fertilizer, and dozens of other skills needed for their

          By the time fall arrived things were going much better
     for the Pilgrims, thanks to the help they had received. The
     corn they planted had grown well. There was enough food to
     last the winter. They were living comfortably in their
     Indian-style wigwams and had also managed to build one
     European-style building out of squared logs. This was their
     church. They were now in better health, and they knew more
     about surviving in this new land. The Pilgrims decided to
     have a thanksgiving feast to celebrate their good fortune.
     They had observed thanksgiving feasts in November as
     religious obligations in England for many years before
     coming to the New World.

          The Algonkian tribes held six thanksgiving festivals
     during the year. The beginning of the Algonkian year was
     marked by the Maple Dance which gave thanks to the Creator
     for the maple tree and its syrup. This ceremony occurred
     when the weather was warm enough for the sap to run in the
     maple trees, sometimes as early as February. Second was the
     planting feast, where the seeds were blessed. The
     strawberry festival was next, celebrating the first fruits
     of the season. Summer brought the green corn festival to
     give thanks for the ripening corn. In late fall, the
     harvest festival gave thanks for the food they had grown.
     Mid-winter was the last ceremony of the old year. When the
     Indians sat down to the "first Thanksgiving" with the
     Pilgrims, it was really the fifth thanksgiving of the year
     for them!

          Captain Miles Standish, the leader of the Pilgrims,
     invited Squanto, Samoset, Massasoit (the leader of the
     Wampanoags), and their immediate families to join them for
     a celebration, but they had no idea how big Indian families
     could be. As the Thanksgiving feast began, the Pilgrims
     were overwhelmed at the large turnout of ninety relatives
     that Squanto and Samoset brought with them. The Pilgrims
     were not prepared to feed a gathering of people that large
     for three days. Seeing this, Massasoit gave orders to his
     men within the first hour of his arrival to go home and get
     more food. Thus it happened that the Indians supplied the
     majority of the food: Five deer, many wild turkeys, fish,
     beans, squash, corn soup, corn bread, and berries. Captain
     Standish sat at one end of a long table and the Clan Chief
     Massasoit sat at the other end. For the first time the
     Wampanoag people were sitting at a table to eat instead of
     on mats or furs spread on the ground. The Indian women sat
     together with the Indian men to eat. The Pilgrim women,
     however, stood quietly behind the table and waited until
     after their men had eaten, since that was their custom.

          For three days the Wampanoags feasted with the
     Pilgrims. It was a special time of friendship between two
     very different groups of people. A peace and friendship
     agreement was made between Massasoit and Miles Standish
     giving the Pilgrims the clearing in the forest where the
     old Patuxet village once stood to build their new town of

          It would be very good to say that this friendship
     lasted a long time; but, unfortunately, that was not to be.
     More English people came to America, and they were not in
     need of help from the Indians as were the original
     Pilgrims. Many of the newcomers forgot the help the Indians
     had given them. Mistrust started to grow and the friendship
     weakened. The Pilgrims started telling their Indian
     neighbors that their Indian religion and Indian customs
     were wrong. The Pilgrims displayed an intolerance toward
     the Indian religion similar to the intolerance displayed
     toward the less popular religions in Europe. The
     relationship deteriorated and within a few years the
     children of the people who ate together at the first
     Thanksgiving were killing one another in what came to be
     called King Phillip's War.

          It is sad to think that this happened, but it is
     important to understand all of the story and not just the
     happy part. Today the town of Plymouth Rock has a
     Thanksgiving ceremony each year in remembrance of the first
     Thanksgiving. There are still Wampanoag people living in
     Massachusetts. In 1970, they asked one of them to speak at
     the ceremony to mark the 350th anniversary of the Pilgrim's
     arrival. Here is part of what was said:

          "Today is a time of celebrating for you -- a time of
     looking back to the first days of white people in America.
     But it is not a time of celebrating for me. It is with a
     heavy heart that I look back upon what happened to my
     People. When the Pilgrims arrived, we, the Wampanoags,
     welcomed them with open arms, little knowing that it was
     the beginning of the end. That before 50 years were to
     pass, the Wampanoag would no longer be a tribe. That we and
     other Indians living near the settlers would be killed by
     their guns or dead from diseases that we caught from them.
     Let us always remember, the Indian is and was just as human
     as the white people.

          Although our way of life is almost gone, we, the
     Wampanoags, still walk the lands of Massachusetts. What has
     happened cannot be changed. But today we work toward a
     better America, a more Indian America where people and
     nature once again are important."


     1.   Who lived on the rocky shores where the Pilgrims

     2.   The Wampanoags were part of what culture area?

     3.   In what type of homes did the Wampanoags live?

     4.   Explain what the Wampanoags did to obtain food during
          the different seasons of the year?

     5.   What was the basic dress for the Wampanoag people?

     6.   Describe the Iroquois system of government.

     7.   Who later used this system of government as a model?

     8.   What courtesies did the Wampanoag people extend toward
          all visitors?

     9.   Who was "Tisquantum" and what village was he from?

     10.  Explain how Squanto learned to speak English.

     11.  Why did Squanto and Samoset go to live with another
          Wampanoag village?

     12.  Tell four ways in which Squanto helped the Pilgrims.

     13.  Describe the "First Thanksgiving" in your own words.

     14.  Why was this really the fifth thanksgiving feast for
          the Indians that year?

     15.  What do you think would have happened to the Pilgrims
          if they had not been helped by the Indians?

     16.  After studying about the culture of the Wampanoags,
          how would you react to a thanksgiving picture showing
          tipis and Indians wearing feathered headdresses?

     17.  Quickly re-read the lesson and as you read, make a
          list of vocabulary words that are new to you and write
          a definition for each one.

                         IDEAS FOR ENRICHMENT

     * Study harvest celebrations in other cultures: Asia (New
     Year), Northwest Coast Indians (salmon feast), and Europe
     (Oktoberfest). For further information, contact the Ethnic
     Heritage Council of the Pacific Northwest, 1107 NE 45th,
     Suite 315A, Seattle, Washington, 98105, 206/633-3239.

     * Imagine for a moment that people from different cultures
     have come to your neighborhood. How will you make them feel
     welcome? How might you share your possessions with them?
     What kinds of things could you do to build feelings of
     friendship and harmony with them?

     * Investigate agriculture in your local community. What
     crops are grown? What time of year are they harvested? What
     harvest fairs are celebrated in your area?

     * Discuss religious and cultural intolerance as evidenced
     by the problems that developed between the Indians and the
     Pilgrims in the years following the first thanksgiving at
     Plymouth. How do the United States Constitution and Bill of
     Rights safeguard the freedom of religion and the rights of
     all citizens in America today?

                     HOW TO AVOID OLD STEREOTYPES

     If you enact the story of the first thanksgiving as a
     pageant or drama in your classroom, here are some things to

     * Indians should wear appropriate clothing (see dolls on
     pages 31 and 35). NO WARBONNETS! A blanket draped over one
     shoulder is accurate for a simple outfit.

     * Squanto and Samoset spoke excellent English. Other
     Indians would have said things in the Algonkian language.
     These people were noted for their formal speaking style. A
     good example of their oratory would be the prayers on page
     23. Someone could read this as part of the drama.

     * Indians in the Woodlands area did not have tipis or
     horses, so these should not be part of any scenery or

     * Any food served should be authentic. The following would
     be appropriate:

         -- corn soup (see recipe on page 28)
         -- succotash (see recipe on page 28)
         -- white fish
         -- red meat
         -- various fowl (turkey, partridge, duck)
         -- berries (including whole cranberries)
         -- maple sugar candies
         -- corn starch candy (believe it or not, candy corn is
            almost authentic except for the colored dyes)
         -- watercress
         -- any kind of bean (red, black, green, pinto)
         -- squash
         -- corn
         -- sweet potato
         -- pumpkin


     "An Educational Coloring Book of Northeast Indians,"
     Spizzirri Publishing Company, Illinois, 1982.

     Arber, Edward, "Plymouth Colony Records," Boston,
     Massachusetts, 1897.

     Armstrong, Virginia Irving, "I Have Spoken," Pocket Books,
     New York, 1972.

     Benton-Banai, Edward, "The Mishomis Book," Indian Country
     Press, Inc., Saint Paul, Minn., 1979.

     Berkhofer, Jr., Robert F, "The White Man's Indian," Vintage
     Books, Random House, New York, 1978.

     Blitzer, Charles, "Age of Kings," Great Ages of Man Series,
     Time-Life Books, Time, Inc., New York, 1967.

     Bradford, Sir William, and Winslow, Edward, "Of Plymouth
     Plantation" and Mourt's Relation," Massachusetts Historical
     Society Collections, Tri-centennial Edition, 1922.

     "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," The Council on
     Interracial Books for Children, Fawcett Pub. Inc.,
     Greenwich, Conn., 1971.

     Epstein, Sam and Beryl, "European Folk Festivals," Garrand
     Publishing Company, Champagne, Illinois, 1968.

     Dalgliesh, Alice, "The Thanksgiving Story," Charles
     Scribner's Sons, New York, 1954.

     Forbes, Jack D., "The Indian in America's Past," Prentice
     Hall, Inc., 1964.

     Graff, Stewart and Polly Ann, "Squanto, Indian Adventurer,"
     Garrard Publishing Company, Illinois, 1965.

     "Handbook of North American Indian series, Volume 15,
     "History of the Indians of the Northeast," Smithsonian
     Institute, Washington, D.C., 1978.

     "Harpers' Popular Cyclopaedia of United States History,"
     Vol. 1 & 2, Harper and Brothers, Pub., Franklin Square, New
     York, 1892.

     Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," W.W. Norton
     and Company, Inc., New York, 1976.

     Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," Tacoma Public
     Schools, Tacoma, Washington, 1981.

     Leiser, Julia, "Famous American Indians and Tribes," Youth
     Publications, Saturday Evening Post Company, 1977.

     Ross, Cathy and Fernandes, Roger, "Woodland Culture Area,"
     Curriculum Associates, Seattle, Washington, 1979.

     Russell, Howard S., "Indians in New England Before the
     Mayflower," University Press of New England, Hanover, New
     Hampshire, 1986.

     Simmons, William S., "Spirit of the New England Tribes,
     Indian History and Folklore 1620-1984," University Press of
     New England, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1985.


     Gwa!   Gwa!   Gwa!
     Now the time has come!
          Hear us, Lord of the Sky!
     We are here to speak the truth,
          for you do not hear lies,
     We are your children, Lord of the Sky.

     Now begins the Gayant' gogwus
          This sacred fire and sacred tobacco
     And through this smoke
          We offer our prayers
     We are your children, Lord of the Sky.

     Now in the beginning of all things
          You provided that we inherit your creation
     You said: I shall make the earth
          on which people shall live
     And they shall look to the earth as their mother
     And they shall say, "It is she who supports us."
     You said that we should always be thankful
     For our earth and for each other
     So it is that we are gathered here
     We are your children, Lord of the Sky.

              Now again the smoke rises
              And again we offer prayers
              You said that food should be placed beside us
              And it should be ours in exchange for our labor.
              You thought that ours should be a world
              where green grass of many kinds should grow
              You said that some should be medicines
              And that one should be Ona'o
              the sacred food, our sister corn
              You gave to her two clinging sisters
              beautiful Oa'geta, our sister beans
              and bountiful Nyo'sowane, our sister squash
              The three sacred sisters; they who sustain us.

              This is what you thought, Lord of the Sky.
              Thus did you think to provide for us
              And you ordered that when the warm season comes,
              That we should see the return of life
              And remember you, and be thankful,
              and gather here by the sacred fire.
              So now again the smoke arises
              We the people offer our prayers
              We speak to you through the rising smoke
              We are thankful, Lord of the Sky.

              (Liberally translated)
              Chuck Larsen, Seneca                                    

                             INDIAN CORN

     Corn was a very important crop for the people of the
     northeast woodlands. It was the main food and was eaten at
     every meal. There were many varieties of corn -- white,
     blue, yellow and red.

     Some of the corn was dried to preserve and keep it for food
     throughout the winter months. Dried corn could be made into
     a food called hominy. To make hominy, the dried corn was
     soaked in a mixture of water and ashed for two days. When
     the kernels had puffed up and split open, they were drained
     and rinsed in cold water. Then the hominy was stir-fried
     over a fire. You can buy canned hominy in most grocery
     stores. Perhaps someone in your class would like to bring
     some for everyone to sample.

     Corn was often ground into corn meal, using wooden mortars
     and pestles. The mortars were made of short logs which were
     turned upright and hollowed out on the top end. The corn
     was put in the hollow part and ground by pounding up and
     down with a long piece of wood which was rounded on both
     ends. This was called a pestle.

     Corn meal could be used to make cornbread, corn pudding,
     corn syrup, or could be mixed with beans to make succotash.
     A special dessert was made by boiling corn meal and maple

     All parts of the corn plant were used. Nothing was thrown
     away. The husks were braided and woven to make masks,
     moccasins, sleeping mats, baskets, and cornhusk dolls.
     Corncobs were used for fuel, to make darts for a game, and
     were tied onto a stick to make a rattle for ceremonies.

     Corn was unknown to the Europeans before they met the
     Indians. Indians gave them the seeds and taught them how to
     grow it. Today in the U.S.A., more farm land is used to
     grow corn (60 million acres) than any other grain.

     From: _Woodland Culture Area_, Ross/Fernandes, 1979

                           RECIPES FROM THE
                        WOODLAND CULTURE AREA

     ('o' nanh-dah) by Miriam Lee


     12 ears white corn in milky stage
     1 # salt pork (lean and fat)
     1 # pinto or kidney beans

     Using low heat, take corn and roast on top of range (using
     griddle if your stove is equipped with one) and keep
     rotating corn until ears are a golden brown. After the corn
     is roasted, take ears and put on foil covered cookie sheet
     until cool enough to handle. Scrape each ear once or twice
     With a sharp knife. Corn is ready for making soup. While
     corn is being roasted, fill kettle (5 qt. capacity)
     approximately 3/4 full with hot water and put on to boil
     along with salt pork which has been diced in small pieces
     for more thorough cooking. Beans should be sorted for
     culls, washed twice and parboiled for approximately 35-45
     minutes. After parboiling beans, rinse well in tepid water
     2 or 3 times. Corn and beans should then be put in kettle
     with pork and cooked for about 1 hour. (Note: Beans can
     also be soaked overnight to cut cooking time when preparing


     green corn with kernels removed
     fresh shelled beans
     enough water to cover
     salt and pepper to taste
     cubed salt pork

     Mix the corn and beans and cover with water. Cook the
     mixture over medium heat for about a half hour. (Be sure to
     stir the mixture to avoid scorching.) Add pepper and salt
     and salt pork if desired.

     FROM: _Our Mother Corn_

                             STORY OF THE
                            CORN HUSK DOLL

     This legend is told by Mrs. Snow,
     a talented Seneca craftswoman.

     Many, many years ago, the corn, one of the Three Sisters,
     wanted to make something different. She made the moccasin
     and the salt boxes, the mats, and the face. She wanted to
     do something different so the Great Spirit gave her
     permission. So she made the little people out of corn husk
     and they were to roam the earth so that they would bring
     brotherhood and contentment to the Iroquois tribe. But she
     made one that was very, very beautiful. This beautiful corn
     person, you might call her, went into the woods and saw
     herself in a pool. She saw how beautiful she was and she
     became very vain and naughty. That began to make the people
     very unhappy and so the Great Spirit decided that wasn't
     what she was to do. She didn't pay attention to his
     warning, so the last time the messenger came and told her
     that she was going to have her punishment. Her punishment
     would be that she'd have no face, she would not converse
     with the Senecas or the birds or the animals. She'd roam
     the earth forever, looking for something to do to gain her
     face back again. So that's why we don't put any faces on
     the husk dolls.

     From: _Our Mother Corn_

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